Romanticism as a tendency in art and literature of England emerged in the 90th of XVIII century.A A Romanticism in England took form earlier than in other Western European states, it had its graphic specificity and individuality. Its most bright representatives were William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Robert Southey, Thomas Moore, George Gordon Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Walter Scott, John Keats and others, who have left a rich heritage in the literature of England and contributed to the universe literature.
RomanticismA isA oneA of the most controversialA trendsA in EuropeanA literature, A inA the literatureA RomanticismA is largely understood notA onlyA asA a formal literary tendency, butA as aA certain doctrine, A and it isA throughA thisA philosophyA that weA tryA to defineA Romanticism.
One of the characteristics of Romanticism in England was its brilliant lyric poesy, A especiallyA lyric poesy, A in whichA the individuality ofA the poet wasA brilliantly expressedA inA whatever heA wrote.A English poets framed their observations and positions in fables, antic visions, cosmic symbolism.
A Sublime things and feelings were understood by them non merely as something sole, but that could be present in the simplest things, in mundane life.A
One of the features of romantic literature was a particular attending to the religious universe of adult male, but, in contrast to the sentimental literature, Romantics were interested non in an ordinary adult male, but “ the exceeding adult male in the exceeding fortunes ” .A Romantic hero is sing violent emotions, is endeavoring for flawlessness, dreams of an ideal.
A Romantic hero loves and sometimes idealise the Middle Ages clip, “ pristine nature ” , in powerful signifiers of which he sees contemplation of his strong and at odds emotions. A
When qualifying the relation of romantic authors and poets to the universe, it is importantA to indicate aspiration to the ideal, human urges and feelings, the belief that non logic and cognition but intuition and imaginativeness could uncover all the enigmas of life. But it is aspiration to the ideal, sometimes illusive or unachievable, that lead to rejection of mundane life which did non run into that ideal.A A Therefore, the romantic heroes had an “ internal dichotomy ” , forced to populate in two disparate universes of the ideal and world, sometimes coming in protest non merely against the bone of world, but besides against the godly universe order.A Here came the alleged “ romantic sarcasm ” of a adult male in relation to an established world, that the mean adult male took earnestly. In general, A the ideaA is oftenA combined withA sarcasm, A thatA isA the peculiarityA of EnglishA literature at allA stagesA of its development.A
English Romantics were particularly interested in societal jobs, as to the modern businessperson society they opposed the old, pre-bourgeois dealingss, they glorified nature and simple, natural feelings.A Bright representative of English Romanticism is Byron, who, harmonizing to critics, “ clothed in a dull hopeless romanticism and selfishness. “ A His plants are full of poignancy of battle and protest against the modern universe, lauding freedom and individuality.
Understanding of nature and its image in the plants of the Romantics
In the late XVIII – early Nineteen century the really understanding of nature has changed.A First of wholly, it was associated with alterations in life doctrine and universe position of romantics, who so explained all the phenomena from another point of position, different from the medieval and enlightenment views.A The alteration in the “ doctrine of the universe spirit ” and in apprehension of nature had effects on the romantic image of the landscape: Romantics view the universe spirit as a basic rule of nature, as “ weak, vacillating, the least comprehendible and most cryptic portion of nature ” . With this apprehension of nature, the image of nature and landscape appeared as double: the nature itself and besides the spirit that filled it and “ governed ” it. Some critics argue that the difference of the romantic reading of the nature was in the fact that romanticism “ tried to transport balance of the universe of pure thoughts with the universe of touchable and seeable things, extinguishing their resistance ” .A ( Abrams, 1975 )
These inquiries are really of import, because the nature of romantic poesy has saved non merely the aesthetic value of artistic look of its doctrine, but besides it reflected a genuinely profound thoughts and experiences, great human emotions.
It is of import to emphasize the fact that harmonizing to Romantics, nature in general and all its parts have specific characteristics of the human psyche. Though it is of import to state that such personalization and construct of nature as subsidiary to the “ universe spirit ” is really of import distinctive feature of romantic literature, because it reflects the job of adult male ‘s relationship to the universe.
Therefore, the really significance of “ nature ” in the XVIII and XIX centuriesA was wholly different.A What is the something else, something new that distinguishes a romantic position of nature from its premises? A Scientific literature emphasizes such features of positions and attitudes towards nature in romantic plants: A
the deep romanticism subjectiveness, the subjectiveness of nature, precise, single attitude to the topics of nature ;
projection of temper of the author on nature and frailty versa ;
the designation of the sensitive topic with nature ;
the life of nature by subjective emotions of the poet ;
passionate relationship of adult male to nature.A ( Moore J, 2010 )
Subjectivity of nature is a broader construct than the organic position of Romantics on nature, as this construct unites a broad scope of romantic poets.A In English and in German literature subjectiveness of nature is expressed more explicitly than other literatures.A
ExampleA of wordsA of Byron, who really frequently expressed his love to nature, A points toA the factA thatA the subjectiveA relationship withA natureA is really of import characteristic ofA Romanticism.
There is a pleasance in the pathless forests,
There is a ecstasy on the alone shore,
There is society, where none intrudes,
By the deep sea, and music in its boom:
I love non adult male the less, but Nature more.
( Byron G.G. , “ Childe Harold ‘s Pilgrimage ” )
The chief facet in the romantic position on the nature is its “ subjectiveness ” , the corresponding correlativity of the poet ‘s temper with the natural world.A It is a subjective reading of nature that is widely used by Romantic poets, and such characteristics as assortment of moral names, passion, and association of objects with personal – these are the mostA obvious illustrations of this poetic temperament.A ” Nature knows, loves, suffers and dreams, like a adult male, and together with the adult male ” . ( Moore, 2010 )
Therefore, the Romanticism is characterized by a sense of integrity between adult male and nature, but this is non ever expressed in the pantheistic signifiers, and may be associated with different ideological positions.A Furthermore, this integrity can move in the signifiers of Manichaean split, when nature embodies peace and harmoniousness, and is opposed to agonies and inharmoniousness of human relationship. Passionate experience of relationship between the hero and nature is built-in to all romantics, though it may be shown otherwise by different romantic poets.A On the one manus, in their Hagiographas dominate the image of landscape, which reflects their hunt for beauty, for picturesque images.A On the other, they pay more attending to the province of the human psyche and his feelings, and so the image of nature is a projectionA of theA province of the psyche, andA the poet A turns fromA the descriptionsA of natureA to description ofA feelings, A mixingA them and demoing relationship between them. Therefore, the declaration of the relationship of nature with the interior universe of adult male is an of import pattern in plants of romantic poets.A ( Perkins, 1994 )
It is the hr when from the boughs
The Luscinia megarhynchos ‘s high note is heard ;
It is the hr when lovers ‘ vows
Seem Sweet in every whispered word ;
And soft air currents, and Waterss near,
Make music to the alone ear.
Each flower the dews have lightly wet,
And in the sky the stars are met,
And on the moving ridge is deeper blue,
And on the foliage a browner chromaticity,
And in the Eden that clear obscure,
So quietly dark, and darkly pure.
Which follows the diminution of twenty-four hours,
As dusky thaws beneath the Moon away.A
( Byron G. , “ Parisina ” ( st. 1 )
It is of import to observe thatA for romantic poets natureA was an expressionA of religious life, where they saw theA mirrorA contemplation ofA eitherA their ain psyche, A or theA idealA lifeA that constitutedA the objectA of theirA dreams.A Therefore, in their plants natureA is endowed withA more deep significance, than theA intending ofA words.
Animation, A humanizationA of natureA in perceptual experience, A imaginativeness wasA one of theA favoriteA motives of poets.A InA contrast to theA deadA to society, A which killsA a livingA soulA inA the pursuitA of net income, calling, A power, the natureA comes to life, A filled withA the spiritualA lifeA of people.A A In this instance theyA usuallyA haveA inA mindA the wild nature, A untouchedA by adult male, which A givesA remainder, A forgetfulnessA and peace.A Sometimes theA oppositionA of society andA natureA tookA the signifier ofA an antithesis of town and state, A andA so under the natureA was meantA idyllicA countryside, A dramatically different fromA a nervousA andA noisy metropolis. InA contrast to theA falseA andA emptyA society, in natureA everything isA simple, echt andA harmonious.
An illustration of the poetic intonation of nature were the plants of lyrical poet John Keats, who wrote on the high subjects of love, beauty and art art.A In his poemA ” Autumn ” A ( 1820 ) KeatsA went wholly from theA mythologicalA imagination, making aA pictureA of fall -A the clip ofA a sadA farewellA to the pastA before theA rough winter.A LandscapeA in the poemA is associatedA with the image ofA a simpleA manA -A a peasantA who livesA in a perpetualA work.
SeasonA of mists and laid-back fecundity,
A Close bosom-friend of the maturating Sun ;
Conspiring with him how to lade and bless
A With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run ;
To flex with apples the moss ‘d cottage-trees,
A And make full all fruit with ripeness to the coreaˆ¦
( Keats J. “ To Autumn ” , in The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 2005 )
The contradiction between the dream and the world the romantic poet Keats expressed as a contradiction between the coveted ideal of beauty and businessperson prose.A Keats ‘s esteem for the beauty was non, nevertheless, fled from life, from the jobs of world. In his poesy, he showed the truth of life, the kernel of world, he poeticized the beauty that was hidden in life under the screen of some ugly things.A
But when the melancholy fit shall fallA
Sudden from heaven like a crying cloud, A
That fosters the droop-headed flowers all, A
And hides the green hill in an April shroud ; A
Then gorge thy sorrow on a forenoon rose, A
Or on the rainbow of the salt sand-wave, A
Or on the wealth of globed paeonies ;
Or if thy kept woman some rich choler shows, A
Emprison her soft manus, and allow her rave, A
And provender deep, deep upon her matchless eyes.
( Keats J. , “ Ode on Melancholy ” , The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 2005 )
Another outstanding representative of Romantic literature in England was Lord George Gordon Byron. Byron was committed to the educational ideals and aesthetics of classicalism, but he was a romantic poet.A In his work the acknowledgment of the authoritative asperity and lucidity was combined with the image of the complex and equivocal feelings, painted in a glooming temper, but besides with sarcasm.
The Moon is up, and yet it is non dark ; A
Sunset divides the sky with her ; a seaA
Of glorification watercourses along the Alpine heightA
Of bluish Friuli ‘s mountains ; Heaven is freeA
From clouds, but of all colorss seems to be.
( Byron G. “ Childe Harold ‘s Pilgrimage ” , A Romaunt, Canto IV, XXVII ) A
In the romantic verse form we see the strong desireA toA imageA brightA andA crisp contrastsA , besides in the imageA of nature.A RomanticsA oftenA sought toA portrayA a violentA nature, and A Byron seemedA liked theA the presenceA of danger, A a stormA forA himA wasA a symbol ofA the great, A though oftenA fatalA passions.
Axial rotation on, thou deep and dark bluish ocean-roll!
Ten 1000 fleets sweep over thee in vain ;
Man marks the Earth with ruin-his control
Michigans with the shore ; -upon the watery field
The wrecks are all thy title, nor doth remainaˆ¦
( Byron G. “ Childe Harold ‘s Pilgrimage ” , Canto II, CLXXIX )
Aspiration to an ideal and esteem of the perfect beauty of the nature can be found in the beautiful verse forms of Percy Shelley.A The character of images of nature by Shelley organically derives from his philosophical positions, based on the cognition of the history of doctrine from ancient times, from genuinely encyclopaedic knowledge.A Shelley sometimes animates the nature, gives it consciousness and features of highest creative activity – he marks a anthem to the “ Spirit of Nature ” , by declaring the full Universe as its temple.A The influence of the materialist: it were thoughts of Enlightenment and the Renaissance that played a decisive function in the development of philosophical positions of Shelley.A
In “ Ode to the West Wind ” ( 1819 ) the symbolic image of the West Wind is the thought of reclamation of life: the West wind destroys everything old in its way and helps to make new. The lyrical hero-champion is one with the mighty power of the West Wind. A
O wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn ‘s being,
Thou, from whose unobserved presence the foliages dead
Are driven, like shades from an enchanter fleeing,
Yellow, and black, and picket, and feverish redaˆ¦
aˆ¦ Wild Spirit, which art traveling everyplace ;
Destroyer and Preserver ; hear, O hear!
( Shelley P.B. , “ Ode To The West Wind ” , I )
Shelley shows the charming power of the air current as if by magic, depicting its function as “ destroyer and refinisher ” , by powerful natural metaphors the poet expresses his thoughts about the power and great consequence of the nature.
Therefore, weA canA seeA that theA Romantic poets frequently showed the nature as free, powerful and beautiful universe that is different from the human.A Especially romantic poets liked to portray the sea in this sense, its boundless range and olympian power, the air current, which has unlimited power and freedom, and the mountains with their magnificence and empyreal beauty. In this instance, A the freedomA andA the power ofA natural elements have a nonliteral significance, associated with free and powerful human spirit.
RomanticismA is characterized byA a sense ofA unityA between adult male and nature. Consequently, the most importantlyA inA the romanticA positions ofA natureA is “ subjectiveness ” , A the correspondingA correlativity ofA the poet’sA moodA with the natural universe. The romantic perceptual experience of nature is non merely single attitude of the topic to the outside universe, but the nature helps to show the attitude of single to the societal conditions of his existence.A In the perceptual experience and rating of the nature is expressed the relationship of the person to the publicA life, A toA the meaningA of human being.