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The structure of a research paper or scientific writing includes several steps. These steps are described below.
It must briefly introduce to reader our aim of study, methodology, results and findings. The abstract is a summary of our research. It is nearly as important as the title because the reader will be able to quickly read through it. In most scientific writing, the abstract can become divided into very short sections to guide the reader through the summaries.
It summarizes what conclusions have been reached in our literature and whether differences are present are not and whether the writer agrees or not.
It highlights the main issue and controversies about the problem. It describes four guide questions.
Results present the finding of our research in orderly manner. It presents the key finding of our study with respect to central research question. It describes participants (demographic, clinical and etc.). It also presents secondary findings (secondary outcomes, subgroups, etc.). the result suggests that something is true or not. It is true even when our results prove our hypothesis.
It highlights any unexpected thing that came up. It comments on the findings that show our understanding of what our data suggest. It state the main finding of study. It offer perspective for future work. It analyze the strengths and limitation of the study. It discuss main results with reference to previous research.
We should sum up our findings and highlight the significance of the outcome of our study. It discusses the limitation of our study and indicate where further research is needed. A research paper must end with a good constrictive conclusion. The conclusion is fairly like an introduction. one or two well-developed paragraphs is sufficient for a conclusion, although in some cases, three or more paragraphs may be required. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics.
It is the list of alphabetically all the references that have been cited in the text of report. References should consistently fallow one organizable system. All citations in the text must have a corresponding reference. There are different reference style but most common style is APA. It lists all the sources that we used in our project, so readers can easily find what we have cited. Mostly it is the last page of our project or research paper.
It presents relevant details such as letters to participants and the organization. It presents relevant documents, e.g. repots and historical documents. It presents the detail of questionnaires, surveys, and other relevant instruments that are developed for the purpose of study. An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem or it is information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper.
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