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Although the size of DNA maybe microscopic its purpose is omnipotent and crucial to humanity. Without deoxyribose nucleic acid our genes would cease to exist, and the characteristics of the individual would disappear too. As it wanders in the nucleus DNA is replicated and transmitted to assist other parts of the cell. DNA transfers RNA to proteins which is what makes it part of protein synthesis. Transcription makes mRNA which joins to amino acids and produce proteins in the process called translation.
Transcription is basically the chemical synthesis of RNA from a DNA template.
In simpler words, DNA is transcribed in order to make RNA, which is then decoded to produce proteins. The process of transcription occurs in the nucleus which is the power house of the cell. Transcription is the first step of the process of genes into proteins. In transcription, mRNA (messenger RNA) is transcribed from one of the strands of the DNA molecule. The RNA is called messenger RNA because it carries the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosome, where the information is used to make proteins.
RNA and DNA use complementary coding, where base pairs match up, just like the strands of DNA binds to form a double helix. One difference between DNA and RNA is that RNA uses uracil instead of thymine; this is used in DNA. RNA polymerase manages the making of an RNA strand that assists the DNA strand to make mRNA. The next step that is involved in protein synthesis is translation.
In translation ribosome binds to the mRNA at the start codon (AUG) that can only be known by tRNA. Ribosome’s then move on to a phase called elongation .
During elongation, structures made up of an amino acid join to tRNA, they slowly bind to the correct codon in mRNA by forming base pairs with the tRNA anticodon(TAG-AUC). The ribosome maneuver from each codon adding amino acids to the bases to form polypeptide chains. At the end, a release enzyme attaches to the stop codon, ending translation and releasing the finished polypeptide from the ribosome which is the protein. Protein synthesis is simply the making of proteins. Although it may be a complicated process overall it is very easy to comprehend because there are only three main functions.
Which are DNA, Transcription, and Translation there may be other structures in the process like the RNA’s and enzymes, but those are part of the processes. The brief explanation basically is that in the process transcription DNA is untwined by RNA polymerase to make mRNA. Then the mRNA travels to the ribosome where it attaches to the amino acids in the process translation. After they bind together they form polypeptide chains which convert to the desired outcome the proteins.
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