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Marketing Research - Perception Towards Tata “Nano”

Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” TABLES & CHARTS 1. Table & Graph 1. 1 Table & Graph 1. 2 Table & Graph 1. 3 Table & Graph 1. 4 2. Table 2. 1 Table 2. 2 Table 2. 3 3. Table & Graph 3. 1 4. Table & Graph 4. 1 5 Graph 5. 1 6 Graph 6. 1 7 Graph 7. 1 8 Graph 8. 1 9 Graph 9. 1 10 Graph 10. 1 11. Table 11. 1 Table 11. Demographic Analysis Gender Age Distribution Profession Income Group Factor Analysis KMO and Bartlett’s Test Total Variance Explained Rotated Component Matrix Awareness of TATA Nano Responses over Awareness Acceptance Level of TATA Nano Responses over “Liking” and “Plan to Buy” Name Justifies the Product Showing Responses over Name “NANO” “Bike” over “NANO” Showing responses for “Bike” over “NANO” Feature that inspires the purchasing decision for “NANO” Showing responses over the features Preferred Color Showing responses over most preferred color Recommendation of “NANO” Showing responses over Recommendation of “NANO” NANO as Dream Car Showing responses over NANO as Dream Car Cluster Analysis Final Cluster Centers No.

of Clusters in each case 1 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” Executive Summary The research was conducted to find out the perception of the mass towards “TATA” Nano.

The research was done completely for academic purpose for the course “Research Methodology”.

The Research’s main objective was to find out the awareness level, acceptance level towards “NANO” and the major factors affecting the purchase of a small car like “NANO”. The research was based on both primary data collected through survey using questionnaire and also through secondary data like journals, magazines and articles. Almost 100 respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The data was collected from different areas of Bangalore like BTM, Kormangla etc. The data was tabulated using excel sheet.

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The data analysis was done through tables, charts, graphs and some of the statistical tool like factor Analysis, cluster Analysis. The software package used for the data analysis was SPSS 14. 0. 2 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” TATA Group Profile

The Tata Group comprises 98 operating companies in seven business sectors: information systems and communications; engineering; materials; services; energy; consumer products; and chemicals. The Group was founded by JRD Tata in the mid 19th century, a period when India had just set out on the road to gaining independence from British rule. Consequently, JRD Tata and those who followed him aligned business opportunities with the objective of nation building. The Tata Group is one of India’s largest and most respected business conglomerates, with revenues in 2006-07 of $28. 8 billion (Rs129,994 crore), the equivalent of about 3. 2 per cent of the country’s GDP, and a market capitalization of $66. 9 billion as on February 21, 2008. Tata companies together employ some 289,500 people.

The Group’s 27 publicly listed enterprises among them stand out names such as Tata Steel, Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Motors and Tata Tea have a combined market capitalization that is the highest among Indian business houses in the private sector, and a shareholder base of over 2. 9 million. The Tata Group has operations in more than 80 countries across six continents, and products and services are exported to 85 countries. The Tata family of companies shares a set of five core values: integrity, understanding, excellence, unity and responsibility. These values, which have been part of the Group’s beliefs and convictions from its earliest days, continue to guide and drive the business decisions of Tata companies.

The Group and its enterprises have been steadfast and distinctive in their adherence to business ethics and their commitment to corporate social responsibility. This is a legacy that has earned the Group the trust of many millions of stakeholders in a measure few business houses anywhere in the world can match. 3 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” TATA MOTORS PROFILE: Tata Motors Limited is India’s largest automobile company, with revenues of Rs. 32,426 crores (USD 7. 2 billion) in 2006-07. It is the leader by far in commercial vehicles in each segment, and the second largest in the passenger vehicles market with winning products in the compact, midsize car and utility vehicle segments.

The company is the world’s fifth largest medium and heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer, and the world’s second largest medium and heavy bus manufacturer. The company’s 22,000 employees are guided by the vision to be “best in the manner in which we operate best in the products we deliver and best in our value system and ethics. ” Tata Motors helps its employees realize their potential through innovative HR practices. The company’s goal is to empower and provide employees with dynamic career paths in congruence with corporate objectives. All-round potential development and performance improvement is ensured by regular in-house and external training. The company has won several awards recognising its training programs.

Established in 1945, Tata Motors’ presence indeed cuts across the length and breadth of India. Over 4 million Tata vehicles ply on Indian roads, since the first rolled out in 1954. The company’s manufacturing base is spread across India – Jamshedpur (Jharkhand) in the east, Pune (Maharashtra) in the west, and in the north in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh) and Pantnagar (Uttarakhand). A new plant is being set up in Singur (close to Kolkata in West Bengal) to manufacture the company’s small car. The nation-wide dealership, sales, services and spare parts network comprises over 2,000 touch points. The company also has a strong auto finance operation, TML Financial Services Limited, supporting customers to purchase Tata Motors vehicles.

Tata Motors, the first company from India’s engineering sector to be listed in the New York Stock Exchange (September 2004), has also emerged as an international automobile company. In 2004, it acquired the Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company, Korea’s second largest truck maker. The rechristened Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company has launched several new products in the Korean market, while also exporting these products to several international markets. Today two-thirds of heavy commercial vehicle exports out of South Korea are from Tata Daewoo. In 2005, Tata Motors acquired a 21% stake in Hispano Carrocera, a reputed Spanish bus and coach manufacturer, with an option to acquire the remaining stake as well. Hispano’s presence is being expanded in other markets. 4 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano”

In 2006, it formed a joint venture with the Brazil-based Marcopolo, a global leader in Bodybuilding for buses and coaches to manufacture fully-built buses and coaches for India and select international markets. Tata Motors also entered into a joint venture in 2006 with Thonburi Automotive Assembly Plant Company of Thailand to manufacture and market the company’s pickup vehicles in Thailand. In 2006, Tata Motors and Fiat Auto formed an industrial joint venture at Ranjangaon (near Pune in Maharashtra, India) to produce both Fiat and Tata cars and Fiat power trains for the Indian and overseas markets; Tata Motors already distributes and markets Fiat branded cars in India.

In 2007, Tata Motors and Fiat Auto entered into an agreement for a Tata license to build a pick-up vehicle bearing the Fiat nameplate at Fiat Group Automobiles’ Plant at Cordoba, Argentina. The pick-up will be sold in South and Central America and select European markets. These linkages will further extend Tata Motors’ international footprint, established through exports since 1961. While currently about 18% of its revenues are from international business, the company’s objective is to expand its international business, both through organic and inorganic growth routes. The company’s commercial and passenger vehicles are already being marketed in several countries in Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Australia, South East Asia and South Asia. It has assembly operations in Malaysia, Kenya, Bangladesh, Ukraine, Russia and Senegal.

The foundation of the company’s growth is a deep understanding of economic stimuli and customer needs, and the ability to translate them into customer-desired offerings through leading edge R&D. The R&D establishment includes a team of 1400 scientists and engineers. The company’s Engineering Research Centre was established in 1966, and has facilities in Pune, Jamshedpur and Lucknow. The ERC has enabled pioneering technologies and products. It was Tata Motors, which developed the first indigenously developed Light Commercial Vehicle, India’s first Sports Utility Vehicle and, in 1998, the Tata Indica, India’s first fully indigenous passenger car.

Within two years of launch, Tata Indica became India’s largest selling car in its segment. The ERC in Pune, among whose facilities are India’s only certified crash-test facility and hemi-anechoic chamber for testing of noise and vibration, has received several awards from the Government of India. Some of the more prominent amongst them are the National Award for Research and Development Efforts in Industry in the Mechanical Engineering Industries sector in 1999, the National Award for Successful Commercialization of Indigenous Technology by an Industrial Concern in 2000, and the CSIR Diamond Jubilee Technology Award in 2004. The company set up the Tata Motors European Technical Centre (TMETC) in 2005 in the UK.

TMETC is engaged in design engineering and development of products, supporting Tata Motors’ skill sets. Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company and Hispano Carrocera also have 5 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” R&D establishments at Gunsan in South Korea and Zaragoza in Spain. The pace of new product development has quickened through an organisation-wide structured New Product Introduction (NPI) process. The process with its formal structure for introducing new vehicles in the market brings in greater discipline in project execution. The NPI process helped Tata Motors create a new segment, in 2005, by launching the Tata Ace, India’s first indigenously developed mini-truck.

The years to come will see the introduction of several other innovative vehicles, all rooted in emerging customer needs. Besides product development, R&D is also focusing on environment-friendly technologies in emissions and alternative fuels. Through its subsidiaries, the company is engaged in engineering and automotive solutions, construction equipment manufacturing, automotive vehicle components manufacturing and supply chain activities, machine tools and factory automation solutions, high-precision tooling and plastic and electronic components for automotive and computer applications, and automotive retailing and service operations. True to the tradition of the Tata Group, Tata Motors is committed in letter and spirit to Corporate Social Responsibility.

It is a signatory to the United Nations Global Compact, and is engaged in community and social initiatives on labor and environment standards in compliance with the principles of the Global Compact. In accordance with this, it plays an active role in community development, serving rural communities adjacent to its manufacturing locations. With the foundation of its rich heritage, Tata Motors today is etching a refulgent future. Manufacturing: Tata Motors owes its leading position in the Indian automobile industry to its strong focus on indigenization. This focus has driven the Company to set up world-class manufacturing units with state-of-the-art technology. Every stage of product evolution-design, development, manufacturing, assembly and quality control, is carried out meticulously.

Our manufacturing plants are situated at Jamshedpur in the East, Pune in the West and Lucknow in the North. Jamshedpur: Established in1945, the Jamshedpur unit was the company’s first unit and is spread over an area of 822 acres. It consists of 4 major divisions – Truck Factory, Engine Factory, Cab & Cowl Factories, and the Novus. Engineering Division, which has one of the most versatile tool making facilities in the Indian sub-continent. 6 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” Lucknow: Tata Motors Lucknow is one of the youngest production facilities among all the Tata Motors locations and was established in 1992 to meet the demand for Commercial Vehicles in the Indian market. Uttarakhand

The company has set up a plant for its mini-truck, Ace, at Pant Nagar in Uttarakhand. The plant will begin commercial production during the course of the year. Research: Research & Development: Research provides the much-needed inspiration for the birth of new ideas, which in turn breathes new life into products. World-class automotive research and development are key factors that contribute to the leadership of the Company. Engineering Research Centre (ERC): The Research Centre at Jamshedpur regularly upgrades components and aggregates. A wellequipped torture track enables rigorous and exhaustive testing of modifications before they are used as regular fitments.

Safety (CRASH TEST FACILITY): For Tata Motors, safety is of paramount importance. This avenue provides no room for the slightest margin of error. Tata Motors ERC is the only high-tech facility in India to evaluate the degree of passenger safety in the event of any high-speed impact. Through a special crash test facility. Different types of accidents are simulated; the results analyzed, and put to use in the development of a vehicle that satisfies stringent international safety norms. Special high-speed cameras record test crashes at the rate of 1000 frames per second. An accident, for instance, at the speed of 50 kilometers per hour, lasts one eighth of a second.

Thus, 125 frames recorded by these cameras are available for study with the completion of each 7 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” individual test. Minimizing Noise (ANECHOIC CHAMBER): Anechoic chamber is a highly sophisticated noise and vibration laboratory, the nerve centre of which is a vast chamber lined with 88,000 cones projecting at various angles from the walls and ceiling. It is one of its kinds in India and is developed completely with in-house facilities. Designing and Styling (CAD CENTRE): The CAD centre is equipped with 53 state-of-the-art CAD stations and the latest software. The CAD centre is a vital organ of ERC’s Cab Design Section.

CAD designing involves development of vehicle specifications, styling interiors and exteriors, reviewing the styling from the engineering and aesthetic points of view, virtual prototyping to check for design acceptability and feasibility of manufacture. 8 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” TATA NANO Tata Motors’ plans would produce, in real terms, by far the cheapest car ever made. An Indian car may soon earn a parking place in history alongside Ford’s Model T, Volkswagen’s Beetle and the British Motor Corp. ‘s Mini, all of which put a set of wheels within reach of millions of customers after they rolled onto the scene. Tata Motors is developing a car it aims to sell for about $2,500 the cheapest, by far ever made. # Source :(NYSE: TTM – news – people) Tata Nano – The little car that might change the world TECH SPECS:

Length Width Height To seat Engine Power Position Boot Fuel Fuel injection Fuel consumption AC Passenger side mirror Power steering Price Tyres Body Safety features Suspension : 3. 1 m : 1. 5 m : 1. 6 m :4 : 643cc, 2-cylinder, all-aluminum : 33 BHP : Engine, battery at rear end : In front : Petrol : MPFI : 20 kmpl. : Only in deluxe version : No : No : $2500 at dealer + VAT + transport cost. Base version approximate on-road price: $3000 : Tubeless tyres. : All-steel : Crumple zones, intrusion-resistant doors, seat belts, 2 A-Pillars : Independent front and rear 9 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” Seldom do we see cars that rewrite the history books even before they are seen running around on the roads.

And hardly ever do we see cars that vow to put the nation on four wheels. The Tata Nano is one such car – a car that has been in the news for quite a few years, for reasons good and evil. Nano is a car which has breathed into life due to one man. Give credit to Mr. Ratan Tata for his determination to build a low cost family car that has come true, finally! Took long it did, but the Nano came in a beautiful form. Touted as world’s cheapest car by a far cry, Nano has been the talk of the town around the globe. Head honchos of big organizations have been pouring in by numbers to have a look at this engineering masterpiece. We bring you some interesting bits.

Looks: Length Width Height Wheelbase Ground Clearance – 180mm You will be wondering why I am talking about the dimensions of the Nano, since all of you know that it is a rather compact and tiny machine. It is because I have good reason to talk about the dimensions. You see, the Nano is going to be faced with Maruti 800 as its main rival. But you could throw in the Alto and Zen Estilo to mark out some design and packaging aspects. Just to get things in perspective, Nano is over 230mm shorter than 800 in overall length but the wheelbase advantage of 155mm over the offering from Maruti makes sure that the Nano is more accommodating than the 800. Tata has managed to squeeze out a 60mm advantage in width and Maruti 800 falls short of about 100mm in height.

So in essence, you get more legroom, better shoulder room and room more than enough for a turban, if you wear one! But before you enter inside, you are bound to gape in admiration at the beautifully crafted curves of this micro car. I personally feel that the front has a lot of Zen Estilo written on it, but manages to look really funky and cool. The mono-volume design establishes a sea of change from the two-box layout of the 800. What it ensures the Nano with is extremely short overhangs and tight packaging. For a car of this size and image, the Nano is an extremely sexy looking car with futuristic design cues. The bonnet line is steep and unites together with the bumper in a seamless way.

Though there is no ‘grille’ per se, the front has a smiling look which accentuates the ‘happy’ feeling. The fog lamps are incorporated in the bumper which has a distinct air dam running across in between them. In profile, the Nano resembles Mitsubishi’s latest small car ‘i’. The rear of the Nano is somewhat recognizable. The tail lamps are inspired from elder sister, Indica. So this is a very compact hatchback, yes? No my friend, you are massively wrong. Even I was dumbfounded when I discovered that the Nano cannot be called a 3100mm 1500mm 1600mm 2230mm. 10 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” hatchback – a word so true to the way the small cars are.

The reason for this is because it does not have a hatch! The tail gate cannot be opened owing to it being joined together with the boot sill. This makes accessing the engine a pain in the bottom. But a hatchback it will be called still. The back side of the Nano is made attractive by the mid mounted exhaust pipe which peeps out of the aggressively designed bumper. The ultra-secret people’s car for India – the Tata Nano – is here. How will this car change the way India, and the developing countries drive? The Nano is disruptive tech – make no mistake. The world’s car manufacturers have expressed all shades of opinion in the run-up to the Tata Nano.

Suzuki has said that it is impossible V W said it is not what they want to do. DaimlerChrysler said they think it is an important market Tata is trying to tap. There was no way Tata could design a car the conventional way. So went at it on a clean slate. And seems to have pulled it off. The rear engined car will have a small boot for luggage storage in the front. In the process of developing the Nano, Tata Motors has added 40 patents to its kitty. This car, if it becomes a hit, will make every auto company change the way it works and look at the volume market. Not only in India, but in entire Asia and every third world country. Offering mobility for the masses is big business.

The VW Beetle did that, and so did Henry Ford. Environmental Impact In India, a car like this can crowd the streets, forcing the government to improve infrastructure – and as the evolution of the Western industrial society demonstrates, affordable cars can be a major force for change. But till that happens, this is a car that can seriously crowd the streets – and make life a bit tougher in the short-term. The car will have a two-cylinder 624-cc petrol engine with 33 bhp of power. It will also have a 30-litre fuel tank and four-speed manual gearshift. The car will come with air conditioning in the deluxe version, but will have no power steering.

I know, that’s pathetic power by American and Western standards. But Indian maximum legal speeds are way lower than them – and Tata Motors anyway claims that the car is as fast as the Maruti 800, India’s original People’s Car that changed things a couple decades back. And there are a million or more of them on the streets of India already. The car will have front disk and rear drum brakes. The company claims mileage of 22 kmpl in city and 26 kmpl on highway. The $ 2500 is the dealer price – the actual price on the road might be approx Rs. $3000. The car launched is being avidly watched by the auto industry around the world. 11 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano”

As attractive as the Nano is on the outside, the same cannot be said for the interior. The plastics feel cheap and it is here that you begin to feel the concern towards the price that Tata was aiming at. The rudimentary knobs and switches point towards the use of materials which would be better off in tractors twenty years old! Dreary and uninspiring by any measure, that’s what one can say about the interior quality and looks. What impressed me though was the layout. Spacious and functional, the dashboard has a curved look which can prove beneficial when it comes to storing items. The Chevy Spark started it for the small cars and the Nano continues on what seems to be the current trend.

The instrument binnacle is mid-mounted and the centre console has a swooping form which houses all the important knobs and air con vents. Speakers for the audio system have been incorporated on the rear bench just under the seat area. The speedo is calibrated to a top whack of 120kmph though we shall reserve our statements on that till we test the car thoroughly. Cash saving activity has gone a bit too far with the sun visor, there’s only one! Please Tata, please, have mercy on the people who will sit on the passenger seat, only to find no sun visor to protect their skin from sun or no vanity mirror for women (men too, going by the current fashion! ) to put the make-up on.

The centre console, forming a crest in the middle of the dash, can be worrisome if you happen to be as tall as Rajpal Yadav. The seats have integrated head restraints, like in the hugely popular, Hyundai i10. Yes the Nano will be deprived of a lot of creature comforts but to satisfy your salivating mouth, Tata will offer the top end version with air con, power windows and power steering. This car is destined to be exported too, so provision for ABS and airbags will also be there for sure. The floor mounted four-speed gearbox wasn’t smooth as silk but would give the 800 something to take inspiration from. Roominess is what this compact car from Tata is all about. Four average sized Indians will find themselves enjoying their ride. SAFETY Passes crash tests.

Side impact test yet to be done, but Tata is confident about it. It has 2 A-pillars on one side to better meet safety norms. No airbags. Airbags are still not a required feature in India. But you have crumple zones, intrusion-resistant doors, seatbelts and anchorages. A four wheeler is safe than a scooter. So to begin with, the huge two wheeler population of India gains a safety benefit. But will it pass the safety requirements of a large car or even a high technology compact? Unlikely. But that is not the objective – it is to improve the safety of fourmember families like this one that rides scooters and at risk every day. And so here it is.

If Tata Motors is right, we could be witnessing a serious disruptive force and one that might kick-start India on to a high growth path. Successful mass market mobility does that to a country. 12 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” Mechanicals: Everyone, and it does not discount the motoring journos, expected the ‘One Lakh Car’ to have a plastic body. But boy did Tata play it big there! Contrary to everyone’s belief, the Nano is a metalbodied car with four full-blown doors to ease the ingress and egress. This is a uni-body construction but makes use of a sub-frame which adds to the strength in addition to providing support for drive train and suspension units. The suspension has a story of its own altogether!

Well, Tata engineers said that since the rear-biased weight distribution led to some scary moments while testing the car, they had to optimize the suspension setup and add a fair amount of other eccentric but equally helpful technical add-ons like fatter rear tyre while the battery box and fuel tank are placed right underneath front occupants. The engine is what has been the buzz word around the car. It is an all-aluminum two cylinder engine displacing 624cc with two valves per cylinder driven by a single overhead camshaft. The bore and stroke are nearly similar giving it a ‘square’ form. Making the Nano move will be the power of 33 horses which will peak out at 5500rpm while 48Nm of turning force will be supplied at a meager 2500rpm which should help the drivability of the car. The Nano will transmit its small amount of power via a 4-speed cable operated gearbox with the fourth being an overdriven ratio.

Tata is working on developing an automatic gearbox as well but that will not be available when the car gets launched later this year. In addition to the 624cc petrol engine, the Indian auto giant might also bring out a common-rail diesel engine (700cc) which might be of the same architecture as the one seen on Tata Ace. 13 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” LITERATURE REVIEW Article 1 :What gave Nano a headstart ? The Nano could potentially challenge the conventional wisdom within the auto industry that wholly new concepts do not live long enough. New launches basically add a whistle here and a bell there to the plethora of existing models.

Indeed, in more than 70 car launches worldwide, there have been not more than a handful of seminal shifts within this industry. But the Tata offering has come to topple all those casts by reordering the status-quo. The whole story seems to strike two notes at once. The first one is true to the old adage among businesses that the wise profit from giving that which profits their customers; the second dares to contrarily create and nurture a space that others overlooked or even rejected. Some known facts Not too long ago, many pundits within the industry had held that small cars such as the Maruti 800 have outlived their use and must, therefore, pack up. Yet, just into 2008, a glowing Mr.

Ratan Tata drove on to the stage in his Nano, that sports a far lower powered engine and which may soon storm the Indian roads. Surprisingly, many of the same pundits who had bemoaned the twilight of Maruti 800 have now begun to celebrate the business sense that the Nano exudes. It looks like, in any case, the Tata Nano project has defied textbook constructs of successful venturing. In fact, we knew for good reasons that there is much less money to be made in small cars. We also knew that products conceived for specific markets have less possibility of success than those visualized on a global basis. And, admittedly, auto majors with a wider, deeper portfolio of cars are rightly believed to be able to gain more profitably from a radical but relevant offering.

Such manufacturers, it is often acknowledged, are able to reap from the economies of scale that can be got from sharing the costs of design, manufacture and retail, among their entire product line-up. Small-car concept The Tata project bore none of the above usual stamps of success. Yet it is pretty hard to term Nano anything but a success going by the reception it received. This perhaps indicates that the real game is one of strategy. Indeed, it is not so much about cars or of experience as about getting clear the underlying concepts and attitudes. Ironically, Tata’s capture of the “small car concept” is in itself hardly path-breaking. 14 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano”

One recollects that when the Maruti 800 was introduced around the mid-1980s, it was, even after adjusting for the then stronger rupee, an immensely affordable car (well below a lakh of rupees). It was, in fact, India’s first small, sweet car. But, over time, the sweetness of Maruti 800 – rather than the real demand for small cars – had diminished. That was primarily because of its price, which kept on surging. What is certainly path-breaking is the price tag of the Nano. Even if we went all the way back before all those price rises and income growth spread over the past two consecutive decades, Nano’s price would have still generated a landslide sales record in the mid-1980s.

The price element And, what is important is, where a pre-liberalised mid-1980s represented stunted buying power, “today’s India” that is to receive the Nano, represents greatly enlarged buying power. This, in effect, gives the Nano an exceptional welcome thrust. Besides the element of price-point where Tata Motors led the pack on a wide margin – almost every other major car company in the world seems to have otherwise just as seriously investigated small cars. If anything, notwithstanding the environment dimension, the persistently high oil prices of the present decade have, in fact, made all makers gravitate toward more fuel-efficient, smaller cars.

The key question, then, is: With so many auto firms zeroing in on small cars, how did Tata Motors achieve such astounding price levels? Indeed, when global industry majors were talking about a small car with trendy, tiny engines, they were all, in effect, attempting to scale down on what they were traditionally good at: Medium and big cars. Two perspectives Unlike Tata Motors, almost none of the global majors had paid due attention to the thought of an all-new small car. There is, for sure, a big difference between scaling down a big-sized car to a viable small size. The gamut of idea generation, concept, design, making, retailing, and so on, differs a great deal between the two perspectives.

The first perspective tweaks to fit what is already on hand, whereas the second creates afresh to fulfill what is widely sought. Consequently, the processes that colour the making of an inexpensive and cheerful car are not at all ‘cheap’. Understandably, those processes have to be richer in innovation, bolder in imagination, nimbler in evaluating and, of course, shrewder in putting together the pieces (ideas, hardware, and costs) appealingly. 15 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” Taking the lead The stalwarts of the car industry never quite saw ‘small cars’ as ‘small cars’. Here is where Tata Motors strode ahead, giving Mr. Tata and his team a head-start. The Nano, then, brings home the truth that lacking certain advantages can actually prove more rewarding.

The car industry, unlike the insurance industry, which enjoys safety cover from reinsurance, has never been able to obtain a guaranteed cover for assured success. One could say that the future Nanos would certainly get their shots of incremental improvement. So, too, would be the approaches of many other aspiring small-car makers, after taking note of this primordial shift. # Source : The Hindu Business Line — February 5th, 2008 Article 2: Tata to ride Nano to Geneva Motor Show Tata Motors’ Nano, easily the world’s most talked-about car these days, will make its international debut at the 78th Geneva Motor Show in the first week of March. The five-door hatchback that costs just Rs 100,000 ($2,500), making it the world’s cheapest, was unveiled in January this year at the Auto Expo here.

Nano would be among Tata Motors’ exhibits at the show, a company spokesperson said here. Sales of Nano, nicknamed the people’s car for its affordable pricing that will make four-wheelers available to millions of middle-class people who hitherto rode two-wheelers, is expected to start in the second half of this year. Although the car has its share of critics, it has undeniably put India on the global automotive map and has triggered a race among leading car makers to match the Nano price-point. Already, car manufacturers Renault and Nissan are eyeing a $3000 car. The Nano, which Tata Motors has said meets all safety and emission norms, will share the limelight with top marques from around the world that are expected at the show.

This year’s edition of the Geneva Motor Show will mark the 11th year of participation for Tata Motors. Tata Motors’ Nano, easily the world’s most talked-about car these days, will make its international debut at the 78th Geneva Motor Show in the first week of March. # Source :The Economic Times — February 7th, 2008 Article 3: Indian people’s car India is one of those developing countries whose economies are expected to be among the world leaders by the middle of this century. Its technological skill and financial clout have already made an impact in the IT industry and the international cricketing arena, to take just two examples. But the unveiling of Tata Motors’ Nano car in New Delhi yesterday 16 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano”

The headline news is that the Nano will cost only pounds 1,300, thus opening a potentially huge market in the developing world. But Tata has also stolen a march on giant vehicle manufacturers such as GM, Ford, Toyota, V W, Mitsubishi and Renault-Nissan, all of which are looking to expand sales in Asia, Africa and Latin America at a time when the European and American markets are, respectively, flat and declining. Tata has produced a car that not only costs pounds 500 less than the cheapest Chinese model, but also breaks technological ground by having a rear-mounted two-cylinder engine, which both saves fuel and creates interior space. It has taken out more than 34 patents on technologies used in its manufacture.

The Tata Group, the country’s largest conglomerate, epitomizes the global outreach of modern India; having acquired the Corus metals company last year, it is now seeking to buy Jaguar Cars and Land Rover. The world’s second most populous nation presents a striking contrast between that kind of industrial clout and the poverty in which most Indians still live. At one end of the scale are billionaires such as Vijay Mallya, who is promoting India as a Formula 1 racing power. At the other are the inhabitants of Mumbai’s periphery who lack decent housing, education and healthcare. The Nano lies between those two extremes: a car built to attract members of the urban middle class who at present perch on motorcycles.

That it will add to India’s already acute traffic problems should remind the government of how far it has fallen behind in infrastructure development, whether roads, electricity or water. The Nano is a remarkable first from a country that still exasperates for its failure to provide basic services. # Source : As published in The Daily Telegraph, London on January 11th, 2008. 17 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” PROBLEM DEFINITION Marketing Research Problem: “To find out the consumer perception on TATA’S NANO in Bangalore city. ” TATA’s NANO will be launched on 23rd March 2008. There has been lot’s of excitement and enthusiasm among the mass for the product.

To find out how the common mass perceives the product and how should TATA Motors position “NANO” it is important to conduct a research. Objective of the Study: ? ? ? To know the consumer perception on TATA “NANO”. To find out the awareness level about TATA “NANO”. To find out the Acceptance level of people. ? ? To know about factors affecting purchase decision of TATA “NANO”. To find out the target segment for TATA NANO 18 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN: Descriptive Research Method SAMPLING PROCEDURE: Sampling Plan: Convenient Sampling (Non-Probabilistic Sampling Method) Sample Size: 100 respondents QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN: The research was done on the basis of a structured questionnaire FIELD WORK PLAN: 00 respondents were interviewed in and around the Alliance Central campus, Anekal, FORUM Mall, BTM Stage 1 & 2 and Kormangala areas of Bangalore. The group was divided into three groups of 2 interviewers each who interviewed respondents at the above mentioned locations. The respondents were interviewed from 4thMar-7th Mar 2009. LIMITATIONS: ? ? ? The accuracy of the responses given by the respondents. Data was collected from the limited locations of Bangalore; therefore findings cannot be generalized for the whole city or country. Language was a barrier between the interviewer and the respondents to collect the responses. DATA COLLECTION Data was collected from the following two sources: PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION:

Primary Data was collected through “SURVEY” using a structured questionnaire through which the research was able to get an insight in to the consumers mind and to learn about perception towards “NANO”. SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION: Secondary Data was collected through magazines, journals, articles and earlier reports. Secondary Data helped in finding the variables that has an effect on the perception made by the people towards TATA Nano. 19 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION 1. DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS ? GENDER Table 1. 1 Gender Type Male Female Total Frequency 64 36 100 Graph 1. 1 The above mentioned chart clearly shows that out of 100 respondents 64 were males and 36 were females. ? AGE DISTRIBUTION Table 1. 2 Age 18-30 yrs 30-50 yrs Above 50 yrs Total No. f Respondents 64 32 4 100 20 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” Graph 1. 2 The above mentioned chart clearly shows that majority of the respondents lies between the age group of 18-50 yrs. ? PROFESSION Table 1. 3 Profession Govt. Employee Pvt. Sector Employee Student Businessman Professional Any other Total No. of Respondents 10 44 31 12 3 0 100 Graph 1. 3 The above mentioned chart shows that data was collected from respondents having varied types of occupation. The majority of the respondents were pvt. sector employee and students. 21 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” ? INCOME GROUP Table 1. 4 Monthly Income Rs. 5000-Rs. 10000 Rs. 10000-Rs. 5000 Rs. 15000-Rs. 20000 Above Rs. 20000 Not Earning Total No. of Respondents 10 16 14 29 31 100 Graph 1. 4 22 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” 2. FACTOR ANALYSIS To understand the various parameters affecting the perception of the mass towards TATA Nano, the respondents were interviewed with the help of questionnaire mentioned in the appendix having the variables found from the secondary data. Further analysis was done through factor analysis with the help of SPSS software. The goal of the factor analysis is to reduce the no. of original set of variables to a smaller set of comprehensive factors for use in subsequent multi-variant analysis.

Therefore through the factor analysis the 13 variables that the perception of the mass can be reduced to lesser no. of comprehensive factors that can explain the other variables. This shall reduce the complexity. The output we get after compiling the input data is: KMO and Bartlett’s Test Table 2. 1 Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square df Sig. .669 709. 908 78 .000 From this table it can be interpreted that the value of KMO is greater than 0. 5, which means that our research data is appropriate and valid. KMO value is greater than 0. 5 because no. of respondents were more than 5 times the no. of the decision variables.

Table 2. 2 Total Variance Explained Component Total 3. 808 2. 095 1. 772 1. 272 . 932 . 904 . 796 . 546 . 303 . 239 . 153 . 122 . 058 Initial Eigenvalues % of Cumulative Variance % 29. 294 29. 294 16. 119 45. 413 13. 629 59. 042 9. 784 68. 826 7. 172 75. 998 6. 951 82. 949 6. 119 89. 068 4. 197 93. 266 2. 329 95. 595 1. 841 97. 436 1. 175 98. 612 . 941 99. 553 . 447 100. 000 Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % of Cumulative Total Variance % 3. 780 29. 076 29. 076 2. 095 16. 115 45. 191 1. 769 13. 608 58. 799 1. 304 10. 027 68. 826 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. 23 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano”

Now from the above table of SPSS output the total no. of factors in which the variables can be classified can be realized. From the Eigen values of each factor in the table, the factors having Eigen value greater than 1, shall be considered for further analysis. As in this case the Eigen value of 4 factors is more than 1, so the no. of factors shall be 4. The percentage of variance column shows that the total variance explained by each factor. As in this case the 1st factor explains the total variance up to 29. 294 %, similarly the entire factors explains the variable. Upto 68. 826% of the variables are explained by the 4 factors. It means 31. 74% are explained by other factors which have not been taken into account. Table 2. 3 Rotated Component Matrix(a) Variables 1 BrandName Design Safety Afffordability Comfort Status Lifestyle Mantainence Inspace Accessories Power Powersteering Brakes . 171 . 952 . 919 . 882 -. 055 -. 022 -. 010 . 830 -. 122 . 021 . 704 . 130 -. 025 2 . 501 -. 075 . 047 . 157 . 927 . 048 . 898 . 008 -. 148 -. 025 -. 106 . 147 . 297 Component 3 -. 065 -. 011 -. 040 -. 083 . 061 . 924 . 005 . 049 -. 140 . 930 . 090 . 045 -. 050 4 -. 517 . 003 -. 171 -. 231 . 006 -. 034 . 133 -. 011 . 822 -. 073 . 273 . 695 . 442 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. ) Rotation converged in 4 iterations. From the above table of output we can identify the distribution of each variable in our selected factors. Our 4 factors are as follows – Factor1 = Design (L value = . 952) + Safety (L value = . 919) + Affordability (L value = . 882) + Mantainence (L value = . 830) + Power (L value = . 704) shall be combined together to get our 1st major factor, we may name as “ . This factor is explaining 129. 076 % of the variation. shall be combined together to get Factor2 = Comfort (L value = . 927)+ Lifestyle (L value = . 898) the 2nd major factor, we may name as “ variation. “. This factor is explaining 16. 115 % of total 24

Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” Factor3 = Status (L value = . 924) + Accessories (L value = . 930) shall be combined together to get the 3rd major factor, which we may name as ‘ variation. “. This factor is explaining 13. 608% of total Factor4 = Interior Space (L value = . 822). This factor is explaining 10. 027% of total variation. Design Comfort Safety Factor 1 Affordability Mantainence Power Factor 2 Lifestyle Status Factor 3 Accessories Factor 4 Interior Space 25 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” 3. AWARENESS OF TATA NANO Table 3. 1 (Responses over Awareness) Awareness Aware Unaware Total No. of Respondents 92 8 100 Graph 3. 1

The above mentioned pie-chart (Graph 3. 1)and table (Table 3. 1) shows that majority of the respondents were aware of the TATA’s Nano. 4. ACCEPTANCE LEVEL OF TATA’S NANO To find out the acceptance level, the respondents were interviewed over their liking towards TATA Nano and their Plan to buy on a likert scale. Following were the responses: Table 4. 1(Responses over Acceptance) Responses Definitely Somewhat Neutral Somewhat not Definitely no Total Liking 27 56 12 5 0 100 Plan to buy 16 24 28 20 12 100 26 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” Graph 4. 1 From the above mentioned chart it can be realised that liking of the respondents towards TATA Nano is very high i. e.

TATA Nano is liked by most of the respondents. But there is mixed responses over their plan to buy TATA Nano. There were around 40 respondents who may buy TATA Nano and there 32 respondents who may not buy. The rest 28 were neutral. 5. NAME JUSTIFIES THE PRODUCT Graph 5. 1 The Graph 5. 1 shows that most of the respondents believe that the name “NANO” justifies the product. 27 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” 6. NANO OVER BIKE Graph 6. 1 Most of the respondent will not prefer purchasing “Bike” over Nano”. 7. FEATURE THAT INSPIRES THE MOST TO BUY NANO Graph 7. 1 Price is the major feature of “NANO” that inspires respondents the most. 28 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” 8.

COLOUR Graph 8. 1 Most of the respondents preferred yellow and red colour as their preferred colour for “NANO”. 9. RECOMMENDATION OF NANO Graph 9. 1 From the above mentioned graph it can be observed that most of the respondents shall recommend “NANO” to others. 29 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” 10. NANO AS “DREAM CAR” Graph 10. 1 It can be observed from the chart that majority of the respondents do not see “NANO” as their dream car. 11. CLUSTER ANALYSIS Cluster Analysis is performed to assign the objects into groups (called clusters) so that objects from the same cluster are more similar to each other than objects from different clusters.

Therefore in this research, the sample of 100 respondents can be classified into certain no. of groups or clusters showing the same attributes. This form of analysis will basically help the marketer to position their product in a much effective way by targeting a certain group of individuals. Therefore it is important for the research to find as to which cluster of people TATA Nano should be targeted. Here the grouping variables are age, sex, profession, monthly income, family members, awareness of TATA Nano, liking and plan to buy Nano. After running cluster analysis through SPSS software using the above mentioned grouping variables, following output was obtained: Agglomerative hierarchical clustering

First step for clustering shall be Agglomerative hierarchical clustering which breaks up (divisive) a hierarchy of clusters. Therefore through hierarchical clustering an idea of the no. of clusters into which the sample should be classified can be obtained. This is done using “Agglomeration Schedule” mentioned in Appendix. 30 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” From this agglomeration schedule it can be observed that the no. of clusters should be 2 or 3. The next step of classification of sample into clusters is done through K-means clustering. K-means Clustering After running the K-means clustering by entering the no. of clusters as 3, following output was obtained: Table 11. Final Cluster Centers Cluster 1 SEX AGE PROFESSION MONTHLYINCOME FAMILYMEMBERS AWARENESS LIKING PLANTOBUY 1. 62 1. 54 2. 69 3. 85 6. 62 1. 00 3. 92 1. 92 2 1. 28 1. 25 1. 72 1. 94 4. 19 1. 06 4. 03 1. 75 3 1. 35 1. 45 2. 98 4. 42 4. 05 1. 11 4. 09 1. 62 Table 11. 2 CLUSTER 1: This cluster includes 13 respondents. The major characteristics of this cluster are that most of them are females, the age group is between 18-50yrs, the major profession is Pvt. Sector employee and students, monthly income is above Rs. 20000, Avg. no. of family members are 6, all are aware of the TATA’s Nano, they somewhat like TATA’s Nano but they don’t plan to buy it. CLUSTER 2:

This cluster includes 32 respondents. The major characteristics of this cluster are that most of them are males, the age group is between 18-30yrs, the major profession is Pvt. Sector employee and govt. employee, average monthly income is around Rs. 10000-Rs. 15000, Avg. no. of family members are 4, all are aware of the TATA’s Nano, they somewhat like TATA’s Nano but they don’t plan to buy it. CLUSTER 3: This cluster includes 55 respondents. The major characteristics of this cluster are that most of them are males, the age group is between 18-30yrs, the major profession is Pvt. Sector employee and students, average monthly income is above Rs. 20000, Avg. no. f family members are 4, all are aware of the TATA’s Nano, they somewhat like TATA’s Nano but they have larger orientation towards buying TATA Nano. Therefore, TATA Nano should target cluster 3 due to higher intend to purchase, family members are 4 which are suitable for TATA Nano. 31 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” Conclusion & Research Findings ? TATA Nano’s awareness level is very high (92%) i. e. most of the people are aware about Tata Nano. This has been due to many reasons like controversy in “Singur”, first people’s car in just Rs. 1 lakh, brand name of TATA linked with NANO etc. This is a very good sign for TATA Nano to capitalize on their public relations. ? ? Private Sector employees and students have higher degree of acceptance level for TATA Nano.

The most important factors that affect the purchasing decision of the people to purchase a small car like “NANO” are Design, Safety, Affordability, power, comfort, lifestyle, accessories status and interior space. ? ? ? Research shows that the name “NANO” is very well accepted by the people as most of them believe that “Nano” justifies the product. It was also observed in the research that majority of people shall not prefer “Nano” over “Bike” as they believe that bike has some additional benefits over “NANO”. “Price” was the most important feature that shall inspire most of the people to purchase “NANO”. As the car is available in Rs. 1 lakh only therefore most of the people believe that it is affordable to them. ? ? “Blue” and “Yellow” are the most demanding color that shall be preferred by most of the people for their “NANO”. It has also been found out through research that most of the people shall recommend TATA’s Nano to other which is a very good sign for TATA Motors. Also, most of the respondents believe that “NANO” is not their dream car. 32 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” Bibliography & References ? ? ? Exploratory Factor Analysis – A Book Manuscript by Tucker, L. & MacCallum R. (1993). Retrieved June 8, 2006, from: http://www. unc. edu/~rcm/book/factornew. htm Raymond Cattell. Retrieved July 22, 2004, fromhttp://www. indiana. edu/~intell/rcattell. shtml E. B. Fowlkes & C. L. Mallows (September 1983). A Method for Comparing Two Hierarchical Clusterings”. Journal of the American Statistical Association 78 (383): 553–584. doi:10. 2307/2288117 ? ? ? ? ? Schutt, Russell K. 2006. “Investigating the Social World: The Process and Practice of Research”. SAGE Publications Mohanty, Mrituinjoy (2008-01-10). “Why criticising the 1-Lakh car is wrong”. Rediff News. http://www. rediff. com/money/2008/jan/04tatacar. htm. Retrieved on 2008-01-10. Tata’s High-Stakes Bet on Low-Cost Car”. The Wall Street Journal, Eric Bellman, Jan 10, 2008. http://online. wsj. com/article/SB119993102461279857. html. First Look: Ratan Tata unveils Nano”. IBN. 2008-01-10. http://www. bnlive. com/news/firstlook-ratan-tata-unveils-nano/56038-7. html. Retrieved on 2008-01-10. “Deutscher Konzern verdient am Tata kraftig mit” (in German). Die Welt. 10 January 2008. http://www. welt. de/wirtschaft/article1536886/Tata_Nano__der_indische_Volkswag en. html . Retrieved on 2008-03-22. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? http://economictimes. indiatimes. com/News/News_By_Industry/Auto/Automobiles/Rahul_B ajaj_says_Mamata_fought_for_farmers_not_politics/articleshow/3456250. cms http://www. autoexpo. in/news_jan_23. asp http://economictimes. indiatimes. com/News_by_Industry/Nano_to_rollout_from_Pantnagar /articleshow/3523806. cms http://www. timesonline. co. k/tol/driving/news/article3168303. ece http://in. reuters. com/article/topNews/idINIndia-35844720081007 2008 Issues http://www. timesonline. co. uk/tol/driving/article3164205. ece http://www. cbc. ca/consumer/story/2008/01/10/nano-tata. html 33 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” Appendix APPENDIX 1 QUESTIONNAIRE SECTION – I PERSONAL DETAILS Name: ____________________________________________________________ ______ Sex : Male Female Age : 18 – 30 yrs 30 – 50 yrs Above 50 yrs Profession: Govt. Employee Pvt. Sector Employee Student Businessman Professional Any other _______________ Rs. 10,000– Rs. 15000 Above Rs. 20,000 Monthly Income: Rs. 5,000 – Rs. 10,000 Rs. 15,000 – Rs. 0,000 Family Members: ___________________ (1) Do you have any Vehicle ? Yes If Yes than Specify, Two Wheeler Four Wheeler No Both (2) Are you aware of Tata’s ““NANO”” car ? Yes (3) Do you like the Tata’s ““NANO”” ? Very much Somewhat Somewhat not Not at all No 34 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” (4) Do you plan to buy a ““NANO”” in the next 1 to 2 year ? Yes No can’t say (5) Which model would you go for ? Deluxe (with AC) Standard (without AC) (6) Do you think name ““NANO”” justifies the product like car? Definately Probably Might or might not Probably not Definitely not (7) Instead of purchasing a Bike, will you prefer to go for the “NANO”? Yes No can’t say 8) Which feature of “NANO” attracts you most, that inspires you to go for “NANO”? Price Interior space Design Mileage (9) Which colour of “NANO” would you prefer? Red Blue White (10) For what purpose would you like to use “NANO”? Will offer it to your children to use it in place of a two wheeler. Will use as family car for shopping and travel. Will prefer as a taxi. Would like to offer as gift. Any other, specify…………………………… All the above Can’t say Yellow Silver Other, Specify……………… 35 Report: Perception towards TATA “Nano” (11) Do you think “NANO” is people’s car? Very much Somewhat Somewhat not Not at all (12) Will you recommend “NANO” to your friends and relatives?

Definitely will recommend Probably will not recommend Probably will recommend Not sure (13) Which small car would you prefer to buy? Maruti 800 Tata “NANO” (14)Will there be traffic problem with the introduction of “NANO” on Indian roads? Definately Probably not Probably Might or might not (15) Can you trust “NANO” for safety? Definately Probably Might or might not Probably not Definitely not (16) What do you think of its mileage of 21km/l ? Very Good & reason to buy Good enough for small town (17) Do you think that Purchase decision of “NANO” will affect your status? Definately Probably Might or might not Probably not Definitely not Not enough Definitely not Other……………….. Definitely will not recommend 36 Report: Perception towards TATA “NANO” 18) Rate the following attributes of in order of your preference , while buying “NANO”, on a scale of 1 to 7 (7=very good, 1= very poor) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I I——I——-I——-I——-I——I——I Brand Name Shape/Design Safety Affordability Comfort Status Lifestyle Mantainence Interior space Accessories Power power steering brakes (19) Do you believe that “NANO” is a dream car of yours?

Definitely Probably Might or might not Probably not Definitely not Place………………….. Sign…………………….. 37 Report: Perception towards TATA “NANO” APPENDIX 2 Agglomeration Schedule Cluster Combined Stage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Cluster 1 97 27 71 25 72 46 20 56 16 30 30 26 2 22 45 78 81 35 20 37 82 44 51 23 53 42 14 60 25 2 12 16 36 28 30 13 4 16 20 36 52 1 19 25 23 12 2 Cluster 2 100 99 96 92 79 71 70 68 66 56 55 27 15 97 94 93 87 86 85 84 83 76 73 72 69 67 64 62 61 59 57 46 41 40 33 32 29 31 30 81 53 51 35 44 37 22 4 Coefficients . 000 . 000 . 000 . 000 . 000 . 000 . 000 . 000 . 000 . 000 . 000 . 000 . 00 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 000 1. 400 1. 400 1. 500 1. 500 1. 500 1. 500 1. 833 1. 833 1. 833 1. 833 Stage Cluster First Appears Cluster 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 13 0 9 0 0 11 0 0 32 19 33 0 0 0 29 24 31 30 Cluster 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 8 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 17 25 23 18 22 20 14 37 Next Stage 14 12 6 29 24 32 19 10 32 11 35 54 30 46 56 59 40 43 39 45 62 44 42 45 41 80 79 70 44 47 46 38 40 78 39 61 47 60 62 57 56 72 78 61 57 58 71 38

Report: Perception towards TATA “NANO” 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 11 48 43 17 38 34 18 6 45 23 12 78 16 13 20 17 8 45 24 34 11 20 12 2 1 47 13 1 12 3 19 14 11 7 13 2 13 12 12 38 9 2 3 12 2 7 3 1 7 3 1 1 88 80 65 63 50 49 26 10 52 36 95 89 77 25 82 18 16 91 58 48 43 23 60 8 75 78 17 74 20 5 28 98 42 24 45 11 47 34 19 39 14 6 54 13 9 38 21 2 12 7 3 90 2. 000 2. 000 2. 000 2. 000 2. 000 2. 000 2. 000 2. 000 2. 167 2. 200 2. 400 2. 500 2. 500 2. 500 2. 625 2. 750 2. 857 3. 000 3. 000 3. 000 3. 000 3. 156 3. 167 3. 200 3. 333 3. 667 3. 762 4. 00 4. 901 5. 000 5. 167 5. 500 5. 500 5. 500 5. 603 6. 064 6. 408 6. 870 7. 684 8. 000 8. 000 8. 263 8. 500 8. 992 9. 595 9. 778 10. 667 10. 832 13. 791 14. 300 15. 586 30. 899 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 45 46 16 38 36 39 51 0 56 0 53 48 62 58 47 42 0 61 72 70 0 43 27 68 0 74 71 82 76 85 52 0 83 77 86 89 81 90 75 93 94 95 98 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 41 40 0 0 0 44 21 54 60 0 0 49 50 57 28 64 0 59 63 0 69 0 34 0 26 66 65 80 73 67 78 0 79 55 0 84 88 87 0 92 91 96 97 0 68 67 68 63 87 67 63 89 65 69 70 73 64 74 69 74 71 82 81 85 80 76 76 83 75 84 82 95 85 90 86 88 83 93 84 89 91 86 91 93 92 92 94 96 95 96 97 98 97 98 99 0 39 Report: Perception towards TATA “NANO” 40

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