24/7 writing help on your phone

Categories:
Technology

Essay,
Pages 9 (2041 words)

Views

2

Save to my list

Remove from my list

In the recent years cooperative communication has drawn attention of researchers for energy efficiency in wireless networks. The lifetime of the network and energy need to be improved in wireless communication. The cooperative model has proved one of the best techniques for enhancement of network lifetime and also energy balancing among the nodes in wireless networks. The main objective of the paper is to propose multi stage cooperative routing mechanism to improve the network lifetime and enhance the energy efficiency.

The multistage cooperative model is designed to find the set of neighbouring nodes which cooperatively participate for transmission.

Later the cost of link matrix is calculated for those set of cooperative nodes. The multistage cooperative routing mechanism is proposed based on multistage cooperative model and optimal link cost to minimize the routing cost. The simulation results of the proposed scheme shows that it has enhanced energy efficiency and the lifetime of network for various number of performance metrics. The results are compared with the existing schemes.

Recently demand for high-speed wireless networks has increased and has moved the development of wireless ad-hoc networks. The wireless ad-hoc networks are equipped with single transceiver antenna for exchanging data between nodes. If direct communication is not possible then the network uses neighbor nodes for exchanging data. The energy of the nodes in the network is constrained and it will reduce the lifetime of the network. In this perspective, the distinct characteristics of wireless networks lead to more refined design of protocols and algorithms.

To solve these problems, the introduction of the cooperative communication [1–2] in wireless networks has improved the energy efficiency of end-to-end transmission by allowing several single-antenna nodes to cooperate and forward the packet to the destination. Furthermore, by combining the routing techniques and physical layer with reference to cooperative communication a cross layer routing schemes may be developed [3]. Based on the cross layer technique the power related to cooperative node may be allocated in that route.

To maximize the end-to-end performance there are many techniques are proposed such as minimizing total energy routing (MTE) [4], cooperation along the minimum energy non-cooperative path (CAN) [5], progressive cooperative routing (PC) [5], cooperative cluster-based routing (CwR) [6], cooperative shortest path algorithm (CSP) [7], relay selection-based cooperative routing (CC-OPT) [8], power efficient location-based cooperative routing (PELCR) [9] and minimum-energy cooperative routing (MECR) [10].

A considerable amount of literature [11-15] has been published on maximizing the network lifetime. The complete lifetime of network reflects the energy balance in the network. It is defined as the time session in which first node becomes exhausted. The flow augmentation (FA) [12] scheme considers the link residual energy, so that it avoids the low energy node to participate in the best route for transfer. It avoids the network prolong in the best route. The flow augmentation cooperative routing (FACR) [13] added one to one cooperative communication method and it uses residual energy as cooperative link cost and chooses neighbours node as cooperative node by the transmitters. The energy-balanced cooperative routing (EBCR) [14] has calculated the lifetime of network from its previous single hop transmissions and it picks the set of nodes which has higher lifetime energy to choose has primary node and to balance the energy of the network.

Based on the motivation of these papers we propose a multistage energy-efficient cooperative routing (MEECR) scheme to simultaneously improve the efficiency and lifetime of network. Our study concentrates on Multistage Cooperative (MSC) transmission model where the primary node is introduced to determine the Primary set for cooperation in distinction with the existing systems. The proposed MEECR scheme can meet various performance requirements as well as adapt to the fading environment. The simulation results will show the benefits of proposed MEECR protocol will examine the network parameters like residual energy, lifetime of network, and average end-to-end transmission delay and energy efficiency in comparison with the existing schemes.

The system model consist of wireless network of N nodes with single antenna distributed over an MxM network arbitrarily. The multi-hop network is created by self organizing among the nodes. The complete network can be defined as a connected undirected graph G= (V, P), where V is the set of nodes and |V|= N is the number of nodes. The P, set of all the bi-directional wireless communication links between pairs of nodes. There is only one active communication session from Vs to Vd at any instance of time.

The existing schemes for routing is based on link cost MTE [4], PC-l [5] mainly focus on minimizing the end-to-end transmission energy consumption, and FA [12], FACR [13] which are designed to maximize the network lifetime.

- MTE transmission scheme [4] uses the minimum transmission cost Cij between node i and j for packet delivery.
- PC-l transmission scheme [5] introduces the multipoint-to-point cooperative model and the link cost is the minimum transmission power cost to form the cooperative link.
- FA transmission scheme [12] targets normalized residual energy for transmitting to improve the lifetime of network.
- FACR transmission scheme [13] enriches FA to improve the lifetime of network with cooperative transmission.

The proposed multistage energy efficient cooperative routing needs to design a MSC transmission model for the calculation of link cost which will be considered as one of the important parameter for the selection of route. Then, the MEECR algorithm selects the optimised link cost in the multistage network with optimal shortest path for cooperative routing. It is noted that the proposed MEECR is also designed based in contrast with existing methods for better cooperative transmission model. The proposed model is reengineered and added with residual energy and the link cost to achieve a better cooperative routing.

The following are the basic definitions of some of the elements used in the proposed multistage energy efficient cooperative routing model.

Primary candidate node: If a node m has a better route with very good channel condition to node i than the receiver node j, the node m is called as Primary candidate node. The Ni,j=Ei,m>Ei,j where m is in N (set of nodes).

Primary node: If a node is selected as primary node and has same power in the channel link between i and j then the data transfer will happen directly between i and j has primary node.

Primary set: The Primary set S(u) is frames by considering a set of nodes which are reachable between i and j with better channel link power than the primary helper. If u=i then S(u)={i};

The data transmission will complete in two stages.

- Stage 1: The node i selects primary node from a set of Ni,j. The primary node i will be selected as per the power of channel.
- Stage 2: The node I transmit data to j cooperative by selecting primary node m in S(u) and transmit data D using multistage energy efficient cooperative routing scheme.

The link cost between node i and j is calculated under primary node Ci,m,j = Ci,m+Cs(u),j. The initial broadcast link cost is calculated using Ci,u=(Eini/Ei)y.Pt, where y is normalised residual energy effect. The packet transmission in second stage is performed by cooperative selection mechanism among the set S(u) as minimum cost calculation among a set of nodes.

Cs(u),j=min((∑(Eini/Ei)y.ri>rmin))

Which minimises the total weighted transmission power.

By selecting the best primary node, the cooperative primary set of the link i to j can be optimized and the number of cooperative nodes can also be determined.

Algorithm: Selection of Primary node

- Obtain the set of Primary candidate node Ui,j for link Pi,j
- Traverse u ∈ Ui,j , and calculate the related multi-stage link cost Ci,u,j
- Determine the primary node with the optimized multi-stage link cost Ctsci,j
- The link Pi,j owns a primary node u ∗ i,j ⇐ min cost among set of S(u)

The Multistage energy efficient cooperative routing algorithm is proposed base on the link cost calculated in multistage cooperative transmission model.

The nodes in the network will broadcast “HELLO” message periodically to know about the residual energy, channel power information and the topology details. The link cost data collected will be maintained in the vector Ci,j for algorithm and primary node information in S(u) for selecting cooperative node for routing.

Assume that the data packet D is transmitted from Vs to Vd, and N is a set of nodes which broadcast RREQ message to find the routing path. The Multistage cooperative routing algorithm find the shortest path among Vs and Vd based on multi stage cooperative link cost in a distributed environment as follows:

- Each node i calculates Ci for finding primary node Ui based on link cost calculation
- The Vs broadcast its RREQ message with its Cs to among the S(u) and the queue gets updated as Q=QUVs
- The node i finds minimum of Cs,i and broadcasts RREQ message for Vd!=i along with Cs,i
- The Cj gets updated for each j corresponding route based on shortest path algorithm as per Cs,i+Ci,ji->j
- The step 3 and step 4 will be repeated for i=Vd. Then send unicast message RREP message to Vs along with route path cooperative shortest path for routing the data D.

The packet data D is delivered from source along the routing path RMSCR as calculated using our proposed algorithm using cooperative shortest routing path.

The simulations for the above proposed scheme is designed using NS2 to prove the effectiveness of energy efficiency in cooperative routing in comparison with existing methods. The simulation setup has a set of N nodes and placed randomly in MxM square meters. The simulation setup parameters are shown in table 1 with randomly selected topologies. The setup will run 50 trials and the output of the same is recorded. Each simulation as Eini the initial energy of all nodes initialised and later the residual energy calculation after the simulation has run. The source node and destination node is selected randomly for each simulation trial and each source has one packet to transmit.

The MTE, PC-3, FA, and FACR schemes are adopted as the baselines for performance comparison with the proposed scheme. The following performance metrics are evaluated, they are the lifetime of network, the network residual energy, energy efficiency and average end-to-end transmission delay. The lifetime of network is measured between the number of sessions from the first dead node appears. The average end to end delay is the number of time slots taken for a packet to transmit from source to destination. The number of packets received at the destination with the total energy cost during lifetime of network is defined as energy efficiency.

The simulation results shown in Fig 3 shows Residual Energy for affixed number of nodes N=50 and shows MSCR has long residual energy with y=0. The performance of network is measured by averaging 50 different network topologies each with 50 trials. The fig shows that the total energy of the network is increased and its network lifetime also increases with the increase of N.

The energy efficiency increases in our proposed algorithm with the increase of N as shown in figure 6. The increase of N will also increase the lifetime of network and less energy cost per end-to-end transmission. The results mentioned above shows that our proposed Multistage Cooperative Energy Efficient Cooperative Routing scheme has saved the energy cost of end-to-end transmission and improve the energy balance of network.

In this paper, the cooperative routing protocol for finding energy efficient path from source to destination is proposed in a multi-hop wireless network. The multistage cooperative link cost is calculated and tabulated. The proposed Multistage Energy Efficient Cooperative Routing technique proves that the life time of network is increased and energy efficient data is transmitted in a wireless environment. The effectiveness of our proposed algorithm is shown in the simulation results. The results proved that the MEECR has increased the lifetime of network and reduced the end-to-end delay as well improved the energy efficiency.

In future the proposed algorithm can be extended for multiple source and destinations and also the interference between different data flows need to be addressed.

Live chat
with support 24/7

👋 Hi! I’m your smart assistant Amy!

Don’t know where to start? Type your requirements and I’ll connect you to an academic expert within 3 minutes.

get help with your assignment