Ingredient Properties and their Impact on Product Quality

Categories: Chemistry

1. Introduction

This lab report will detail the aims, results, and discussions of four different experiments conducted during the semester. After outlining these experiments, recommendations and conclusions will follow. The first experiment aimed to assess the structural properties of sugar in ice cream. The second experiment focused on the physical and sensory properties of wheat flour in pasta extrusion. The third experiment examined the effect of gluten on bread characteristics. The fourth experiment explored vegetarian alternatives to gelatine, assessing their physical and sensory properties.

2. Method

Please refer to the lab manual for detailed experimental procedures.

3. Experiments

3.1 Sugar as a Structural Agent

3.1.1 Aim:

The aim of the experiment, "Sugar as a Structural Agent," was to assess the structural properties of different types and quantities of sugar in ice cream.

3.1.2 Results:

The results of the experiment are summarized in the table below:

Variation Churning Time Melting Time Sensory Evaluation (Flavour) Sensory Evaluation (Texture) Sensory Evaluation (Iciness)
Group 1: ¼ cup of sugar 31.49 44.55 Sweet, soft, vanilla tone Creamy, soft serve ice cream Creamy and soft
Group 2: ½ cup of sugar 37.00 25.00 Very sweet, taste like store-bought ice cream Smooth, soft serve consistency Smooth and creamy
Group 3: 1 cup of sugar 48.09 14.02 (lost more energy faster) Sweet, vanilla aftertaste Thick consistency soft serve-like Not very icy-creamy, runny/melting quickly
Group 4: Stevia 32.42 33.16 Strong stevia aftertaste, watery Soft creamy, mushy blond Some parts were icy, some were not
Group 5: ½ cup of honey 40.00 23.04 Extremely sweet, nutty and honey taste Extremely soft Not icy

3.1.3 Discussion:

The results indicate that the addition of sugar in ice cream leads to a soft-serve-like texture, contributing to a smooth and creamy consistency (British Sugar, 2018) (Koivistoinen & Hyvonen, 1985).

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However, the use of stevia as a sugar substitute resulted in a less favorable product with an altered taste and texture. Manufacturers may consider using stevia as a low-calorie option to cater to health-conscious consumers (Allied Market Research, 2019; Clemons, 2013).

3.2 Extrusion of Grain Products

3.2.1 Aim:

The aim of the "Extrusion of Grain Products" experiment was to discover the physical and sensory properties of different wheat flours used to make pasta via extrusion.

3.2.2 Results:

The results of the experiment are summarized in the table below:

Variation Sensory Evaluation (Appearance, Uncooked) Sensory Evaluation (Appearance, Cooked) Sensory Evaluation (Texture) Sensory Evaluation (Flavour)
Group 1: Plain flour Soft, maintained shape Smooth, soft, chewy, elastic Firm in the middle, mushy on the outside Plain, starchy
Group 2: Fine semolina flour Dry, yellow in appearance Mushy, soft and soggy Hard inside, soft outside, spongy Taste like normal pasta, bland, lack of salt
Group 3: Coarse semolina flour Maintains shape, dry and firm, pale yellow Firm golden color Firm throughout, bouncy a bit hard to cut Bland flavor
Group 4: '00' flour Dry, crumbly Soft, swollen, mushy yet firm Gooey more than store-bought Plain, bland
Group 5: Wholemeal flour Grainy, dry and clumped Grainy and wet, shiny and soft Chewy, grainy and tough Floury and bland

3.2.3 Discussion:

The experiment results are influenced by functional properties such as swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, and bulk density of the flours (Chandra et al., 2014; Chandra & Samsher, 2013). The observed differences in appearance, texture, and flavor among the groups can be attributed to these properties. Group 2, with fine semolina flour, had lower water absorption capacity, resulting in a mushy texture. On the other hand, group 3, with coarse semolina flour, showed a firm texture due to its higher water absorption capacity.

3.3 The Roles of Gluten in Bread

3.3.1 Aim:

The aim of the "Roles of Gluten in Bread" experiment was to assess the effect of gluten formation on bread characteristics.

3.3.2 Results:

The results of the experiment are summarized in the table below:

Variation Sensory Evaluation (Appearance) Sensory Evaluation (Texture) Bite Strength (Peak Force in KG)
Group 1: Low protein flour 2nd best risen, bouncy, crisp on top Soft, moist, slightly chewy crust 0.0258
Group 2: Mid protein flour Very golden brown, risen, solid crust, fluffy Very soft, tender, crunch crust, dense base, doughy in mouth 0.0051
Group 3: High protein flour High risen, golden, bouncy, smooth crust on top Very soft, slightly chewy exterior, tender 0.0209
Group 4: Mid protein flour no kneading Pale, least golden, uneven shape, fluffy inside, wet Moist, crumbly, sticky, chewy 0.015
Group 5: Commercial gluten-free flour mix Dense, low risen, uneven coloring Very dense, hard, crunch, crisp 0.4704

3.3.3 Discussion:

The experiment results can be attributed to functional properties of flour, such as water absorption capacity, stability, and moisture content (Suresh Chandra, ResearchGate, 2014). The low protein flour (Group 1) had a higher moisture content, resulting in a soft and slightly chewy texture. In contrast, the commercial gluten-free flour mix (Group 5) had the highest stability, leading to a dense and hard texture. The observed differences in bread characteristics are linked to the functional properties of the flours used.

3.4 Vegetarian Alternatives to Gelatine

3.4.1 Aim:

The aim of the "Vegetarian Alternatives to Gelatine" experiment was to assess the physical and sensory properties of gelatine compared to plant-based gelling agents in the formation of solid gels.

3.4.2 Results:

The results of the experiment are summarized in the table below:

Variation Sag % Sensory Evaluation (Appearance) Sensory Evaluation (Texture) Sensory Evaluation (Flavour)
Group 1: Gelatine 4.08% Wobbly, clear, bubbly Wobbly, bouncy Very sweet
Group 2: Pectin 91% Pale and orange Thick liquid-like running jam Sour lemon taste
Group 3: Agar 48.39% Light gray color Thick liquid, runny Sour and bitter flavor
Group 4: Carrageenan 0.49% Pale (white) Squishy, wobbly Sweet but almost flavorless
Group 5: Jel-It-In 47.5% Cloudy, wobbly, flattened Running but holding shape Sweet but acidic, stewed apple

Sag% = (Measurement 1 - Measurement 2) x 100 / Measurement 1

3.4.3 Discussion:

The results of the experiment are influenced by the functional properties of the gelling agents (Gelita, 2019) (Porto, 2003). Gelatine formed a wobbly and bouncy gel, consistent with its functional properties. Carrageenan, with its low sag percentage, resulted in a squishy and wobbly texture. Agar, while having some gelling properties, produced a thick liquid rather than a solid gel, indicating it may not be an ideal gelling agent for certain applications.

4. Recommendations

This recommendation is related to the experiment 3.1, sugar as a structural agent. The recommendation that is being made to manufacturers and businesses is to use stevia in ice-cream, as a low calorie, low carb option for individuals and consumers who may be watching their weight or trying to lose weight. The allied market research website (7) states that manufacturers have to increase their product range due to various and everchanging consumer demands such as “health-conscious customers prefer a low calorie and low fat ice cream”, and therefore if they are struggling to produce these products and meet the demands that the customers are asking for, their business will only find it harder to compete in the market. This is when stevia could help to supply manufacturers and businesses with that option to help to grow and develop their business to a wider range of customers. Rachel Clemons wrote on the Choice website (8) that “Stevia is a plant based natural zero kilojoule sweetener”, with low carb, low calories, it is perfect for a sugar alternative because it is also “300 times sweeter than sucrose” meaning when used in ice cream, the ice cream won’t lose its sweetness.

5. Conclusion

In all the four experiments conducted, the aims were all met to some degree. Although some experiments met the aims more successfully than others. The first experiments aim was successfully met as we discovered that stevia and sugars structural properties are very similar and therefore, they both work in ice cream, although honey does not work so well.

Updated: Jan 09, 2024
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Ingredient Properties and their Impact on Product Quality. (2024, Jan 04). Retrieved from

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