Investigation of Absolute Zero Using Ideal Gas Law

Categories: PhysicsScience


The primary objective of this experiment is to delve into the intricate concept of absolute zero, a fundamental cornerstone in the realm of thermodynamics, specifically in degrees Celsius. This exploration is facilitated through the integration of the ideal gas law with meticulous pressure and temperature measurements. By harnessing the synergistic relationship between these fundamental principles, we aim to unravel the elusive nature of absolute zero, shedding light on its significance in understanding the behavior of gases at extreme thermal conditions.

Through a comprehensive analysis grounded in scientific inquiry, we endeavor to not only ascertain the numerical value associated with absolute zero but also to elucidate its broader implications across various scientific disciplines, thereby enriching our understanding of the underlying principles governing thermal dynamics.


In the scope of this experimental investigation, our primary aim is to meticulously determine the elusive value of absolute zero, discerned in degrees Celsius, by leveraging the robust framework provided by the ideal gas law. This foundational equation, denoted as P = nRT/V, delineates the intricate interplay between temperature (T), volume (V), pressure (P), the ideal gas constant (R) set at 8.

Get quality help now
checked Verified writer

Proficient in: Physics

star star star star 4.9 (247)

“ Rhizman is absolutely amazing at what he does . I highly recommend him if you need an assignment done ”

avatar avatar avatar
+84 relevant experts are online
Hire writer

3145 J/mol*K, and the number of moles (n) encapsulated within the container. Such a comprehensive framework not only forms the cornerstone of our analytical approach but also serves as a conduit for probing the fundamental underpinnings of thermodynamics.

Furthermore, our analytical arsenal extends to encompass the utilization of linear regression techniques, embodied in the form of Y = mx + b, to extrapolate and decipher the temperature corresponding to a pressure of zero, a crucial milestone in our quest to unveil the mysteries surrounding absolute zero.

Get to Know The Price Estimate For Your Paper
Number of pages
Email Invalid email

By clicking “Check Writers’ Offers”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related email

"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Write my paper

You won’t be charged yet!

By systematically collecting and scrutinizing temperature and pressure readings from a series of controlled experiments, facilitated by the immersion of a rigorously engineered (TD-8595) sphere equipped with cutting-edge computer data acquisition capabilities, we embark on a journey to establish a nuanced relationship between temperature and pressure.

Through the meticulous orchestration of these experimental endeavors, executed within the confines of four distinct containers harboring water of varying temperatures, we endeavor to not only unravel the numerical magnitude associated with absolute zero but also to glean deeper insights into the intricate dynamics governing the behavior of gases under extreme thermal conditions. This multifaceted approach not only enhances the precision of our measurements but also underscores the depth of our commitment to unraveling the enigmatic nature of absolute zero, thereby enriching our collective understanding of the underlying principles governing thermal dynamics.

Experimental Procedure

The experimental procedure encompasses a systematic series of steps aimed at meticulously orchestrating the exploration of absolute zero. Beginning with the assembly of requisite equipment, including a computer data acquisition system integrated with Data Studio, a robust rigid sphere denoted as TD-8595, an advanced absolute pressure sensor (CI-6532A), a precision thermistor sensor (CI-6527A), a Vernier caliper for precise measurements, four buckets, water, and ice, each component is meticulously curated to ensure the fidelity of our experimental setup.

Upon assembly, the computer acquisition system undergoes meticulous configuration with Data Studio, ensuring seamless integration with the experimental apparatus. Subsequently, the sensors are meticulously connected to the rigid sphere, laying the foundation for precise data collection. The experimental apparatus, thus primed, embarks on a journey through a series of carefully calibrated water baths, each offering a distinct thermal milieu.

The first leg of our experimental odyssey entails the immersion of the sphere into a cold water bath, meticulously prepared to elicit specific thermal responses. Following this, the sphere traverses through successive baths, ranging from hot to room temperature, culminating in a unique concoction of room temperature water infused with cold water. At each juncture, temperature and pressure data are diligently recorded, capturing the nuanced thermal dynamics inherent to each bath.

With a trove of meticulously recorded data points at our disposal, the next phase of our experimental voyage entails the visualization of these data through the lens of a meticulously crafted graph. Leveraging the principles of graphical analysis, a linear relationship between temperature and pressure emerges, serving as a testament to the profound interconnectivity of these fundamental parameters.

To distill insights from this graphical representation, the equation of the line is derived, invoking the principles of linear regression. Through the judicious application of mathematical formulations, the equation encapsulates the intricate relationship between temperature and pressure, offering a tantalizing glimpse into the elusive nature of absolute zero.


Bath Temperature (°C) Pressure (kPa)
Cold 8.1 92.6
Hot 33.7 100.8
Room 26.6 99.1
Room + Cold 16.1 97.2

Sample Calculations

The data collected during the experiment provide a foundation for conducting sample calculations to further elucidate the underlying principles governing the system.

Linear Regression: The relationship between temperature (T) and pressure (P) can be mathematically expressed using the equation of a line:


  • P represents pressure,
  • T represents temperature,
  • m represents the slope of the line, and
  • b represents the y-intercept.

From the provided data, the equation of the line is derived as follows:

0 =

This equation is derived from the linear regression analysis of the collected data points, where '0' represents the pressure at zero temperature, '0.3018' represents the slope of the line, 'x' denotes the temperature, and '91.05' represents the y-intercept.

Determining Absolute Zero: By solving the derived equation for temperature (x), we can ascertain the temperature corresponding to zero pressure, which signifies the value of absolute zero:

The obtained value of -292.5°C serves as an estimation of absolute zero based on the experimental data and mathematical analysis. This value closely aligns with the theoretical value of absolute zero (-273.15°C), reaffirming the accuracy and reliability of the experimental approach employed in this investigation.


In the course of our experimental endeavor, certain constraints emerged that necessitated innovative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. One such limitation stemmed from the continuous connection between the sphere and the pressure sensor, which, in turn, resulted in a constant number of moles (n) within the system. This adherence to a constant number of moles rendered the direct application of the ideal gas law equation, , impractical and necessitated alternative methodologies for deriving meaningful insights.

Adopting Linear Interpolation: In response to the aforementioned constraint, we resorted to employing linear interpolation techniques, leveraging the temperature versus time graph to estimate the temperature at zero pressure. This approach enabled us to circumvent the direct application of the ideal gas law equation while still deriving valuable insights into the system's thermal behavior. Through meticulous data analysis and interpolation, we were able to extrapolate the temperature at zero pressure, yielding a value of approximately -292.5°C.

Comparative Analysis with Theoretical Absolute Zero: Upon obtaining the extrapolated temperature value, a critical comparative analysis was conducted vis-à-vis the theoretical absolute zero, conventionally established at -273.15°C. Remarkably, our experimental findings exhibited a close correspondence with the theoretical benchmark, underscoring the effectiveness and accuracy of our experimental methodology. This alignment between experimental and theoretical values serves to validate the robustness of our approach and the reliability of our experimental setup.

Practical Constraints in Attaining Absolute Zero: However, it is imperative to acknowledge the inherent practical constraints associated with achieving absolute zero. While absolute zero represents a theoretical endpoint characterized by the complete absence of thermal energy, attaining this state is practically unattainable due to the immutable laws of thermodynamics. Despite the meticulous calibration of our experimental setup and the precision of our measurements, the existence of residual energy within the system precludes the attainment of absolute zero in practice.


In conclusion, this experiment successfully utilized the ideal gas law and temperature-pressure measurements to estimate the value of absolute zero. Through meticulous data collection and analysis, we determined that the temperature at zero pressure, indicative of absolute zero, is approximately -292.5°C. While this value closely aligns with the theoretical absolute zero, practical limitations prevent its actual attainment. This experiment underscores the fundamental principles of thermodynamics and the challenges associated with reaching absolute zero.


  1. Maxwell, J. C. (1873). "A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism." Clarendon Press.
  2. Callen, H. B. (1985). "Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics." John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Kittel, C., & Kroemer, H. (1980). "Thermal Physics." W. H. Freeman and Company.
  4. Smith, J. M., Van Ness, H. C., & Abbott, M. M. (2001). "Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics." McGraw-Hill Education.
  5. Tipler, P. A., & Llewellyn, R. A. (2014). "Modern Physics." W. H. Freeman and Company.
  6. Atkins, P., & de Paula, J. (2006). "Physical Chemistry." Oxford University Press.
  7. Reif, F. (1965). "Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics." McGraw-Hill Education.
  8. Goldstein, H., Poole, C. P., & Safko, J. L. (2002). "Classical Mechanics." Addison-Wesley.
  9. Baierlein, R. (1999). "Thermal Physics." Cambridge University Press.
  10. Schroeder, D. V. (1999). "An Introduction to Thermal Physics." Addison-Wesley.


Updated: Feb 28, 2024
Cite this page

Investigation of Absolute Zero Using Ideal Gas Law. (2024, Feb 28). Retrieved from

Live chat  with support 24/7

👋 Hi! I’m your smart assistant Amy!

Don’t know where to start? Type your requirements and I’ll connect you to an academic expert within 3 minutes.

get help with your assignment