Describe physical, intellectual, emotional and social development for each of the life stages of an individual Essay
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The eldest of Frank and Isobel Hawking’s four children, Stephen William Hawking was born on the 300th anniversary of the death of Galileo—long a source of pride for the noted physicist—on January 8, 1942. He was born in Oxford, England, into a family of thinkers. His Scottish mother, Isobel Hawking, had earned her way into Oxford University in the 1930s—a time when few women thought of going to college—making her one of the college’s first female students.
His father, Frank Hawking, another Oxford graduate, was a respected medical researcher with a specialty in tropical diseases.
Stephen Hawking’s birth came at an inopportune time for his parents, who didn’t have much money. The political climate was also tense, as England was dealing with World War II and the onslaught of German bombs. In an effort to seek a safer place to have their first child, Frank moved his pregnant wife from their London home to Oxford.
The Hawking’s would go on to have two other children, Mary (1943) and Philippa (1947). A second son, Edward, was adopted in 1956. In 1963 Hawking’s had many tests done on his well being and found that he had ALS and the doctors said he would die in 2 years.
Hawking’s quest for big answers to big questions includes his own personal desire to travel into space. In 2007, at the age of 65, Hawking made an important step toward space travel. While visiting the Kennedy Space Centre in Florida, he was given the opportunity to experience an environment without gravity. He has also gone on to do many more things which I will go into detail about in this essay. Conception There was no given information about conception, this is what generally happens. However we can estimate the conception time. Physical Development
Stephan hawking would have been conceived around the date May the 8th 1941. During conception the physical development is that the semen from the male joins with the egg from the female to create a new living cell. A baby’s sex is determined at fertilisation. A chromosome from the father’s sperm determines whether the child is male or female. If an X chromosome is present the baby is a girl; if a Y chromosome is carried by the sperm instead, the baby is a boy. Pregnancy There was no given information about the sort of pregnancy Stephan Hawking’s mother had so this is an overview of the general things that happen.
Physical Development There are three Trimesters in pregnancy in the first: in the first four weeks from conception, fetal growth of the ovum begins with development of the spinal cord, nervous system, gastrointestinal system, heart and lungs. By eight weeks, in the embryonic stage, the face is forming, arms and legs move, the baby’s heart begins beating and the brain and other organs form. By 12 weeks, the baby, now called a foetus, grows to 3 inches long and weighs 1 ounce. She can move fingers and toes.
Fingerprints are present. The baby smiles, frowns, sucks, swallows and urinates. The sex of the baby can be discerned by this time. In the second; during the second three months of pregnancy, the baby kicks, can hear and has a strong grip. At 16 weeks a strong heartbeat is evident. The skin is transparent and fingernails and toenails form. The baby can roll over in the amniotic fluid. At 20 weeks, the heartbeat can be heard with a stethoscope. The baby has hair, eyelashes and eyebrows. He can suck his thumb and may have hiccups.
By 24 weeks, the baby is 11 to 14 inches long and weighs 1 to 1 1/2 pounds. His skin is covered with a protective coating, his eyes are open. The Third; the baby is very active at 28 weeks and initial breathing movements begin. She is adding body fat. By 32 weeks, the baby experiences periods of sleep and wakefulness and responds to sounds. A six months’ supply of iron is accumulating in the liver. By 36 to 38 weeks she is 19 or more inches long and weighs 6 pounds or more. At this point she is less active and gains immunities from her mother. Intellectual
Brain waves have been recorded by EEG (electro- encephalograph) in the human embryo 40 days after fertilisation. Human embryos of five weeks gestational age have been seen to move away from an object touching the mouth area. The sensitive area extends to include the rest of the face in the sixth and seventh weeks and the palms of the hands and soles of the feet in the eighth and ninth weeks respectively. 10 weeks your baby’s forehead temporarily bulges with his developing brain and sits very high on his head, which measures half the length of his body.
By 12 weeks nerve cells are multiplying rapidly, and in your baby’s brain, synapses are forming furiously. Birth & Infancy Infancy is a time when growth and development are at their most rapid. This is the time when they learn to control the reflexes they are born with and learn to support themselves such as head support and sitting up. Nothing was recorded on this life stage for Stephen Hawking apart from the fact he was born in Oxford and was the eldest of four Stephen Hawking’s birth came at an inopportune time for his parents, who didn’t have much money.
The political climate was also tense, as England was dealing with World War II and the onslaught of German bombs. Physical Development From birth to 3 months Motor control develops from the head, moves down through the arms and the trunk and then to the legs and feet, according to an item on early development on the online magazine Parenting. Initial movements are reflexive in nature, such as turning the head to the side when the cheek is stroked, which aids in feeding. As the initial survival reflexes fade, motor skills are related to the growing ability to observe and interact with the environment.
From 3 to 6 months At 3 months of age, infant progresses to lifting the head and chest up when lying in its belly and may press up with its arms. A 3-month-old kicks its legs when lying on the belly or back, and bats at and briefly grasps toys, according to Healthy Children. The Hawaii Early Learning Profile indicates that between 3 and 4 months, he begins rolling with belly to back first, and back to belly closer to 6 months. From 6 to 12 months the average age at which infants sat without support was 6 months.
The average age for standing with support was 7. months. Infants in the study crawled on hands and knees at 8. 5 months. Walking with assistance occurred at 9. 2 months. The average age of an infant who achieved standing alone was 11 months. From 12 to 24 months a young toddler takes two to three steps alone around 12 months. They should walk unsupported across a room with stopping or changing direction between 13 and 15 months. Around 18 months, kicking and throwing balls, running, climbing stairs with assistance, and propelling scoot toys join the toddler’s set of mobility and play skills.
From 24 to 36 months (3 years) between the ages of 2 and 3, balance improves and the toddler walks with a smoother pattern. During this period they learn to stand briefly on one foot, walk backwards, and walk on tiptoes. A child jumps in place around 24 months and progresses to jumping over a small obstacle by 36 months. At 24 months then should be able to climb a small ladder and goes down a small slide, then manoeuvres on a variety of playground equipment around 35 months. Between 30 and 34 months, toddlers begin to walk up stairs alternating feet without a hand held or use of a railing.
Other play skills expected within a few months of the third birthday are catching a playground ball that has been tossed to the child and pedalling a tricycle. Intellectual Development From 0-6 months the baby can vocalise, it makes cooing sounds and chuckles, the baby will do this spontaneously and they will discover the impact they can have the world such as when they cry someone will come and that6 when they are played with and tickled they should laugh etc. From 6months- 1? years the child should be able to use one or two words to name things or actions such as ‘juice’ or ‘ball’, they should also be able to say ‘mama’ and ‘dada’.
Point to familiar things when they want them or asked where they are, they should also be able to point to at least one body part when asked, for example if someone asked where their nose was they should clearly be able to show that they know. They will be more curious about everything around them and will start to explore and realise right from wrong. They should also start to realise that objects can still exist when they’re out of sight for example if they’re in their high chair and drop something they will then go off and look for it.
From 1? years-3 years the child should be able to draw a partial person such as the head and body it may not be clear but you can easily tell that it’s supposed to be a body. They will be able to now talk in sentences and formulate them well and their speech is understandable most of the time. They will use the right pronouns for what they’re trying to say and identifying persons (I, you and me) Emotional & Social Development 0-3 months will develop a social smile, they will also at this time enjoy play and cry when play stops.
The child will then in turn become more expressive and communicates more with the face and body. They will imitate some movements and other facial expression that they see on other people. 3-7 months they will enjoy social play with other children and other family members. They will be interested when seeing mirror images (seeing themselves in a mirror), the child will start to respond to facial expressions and emotions and often appears joyful and happy. 7months-1year When the child meets new people they will be shy and anxious at first, will cry when mother or father leaves them at day care, nursery etc.
They will enjoy imitating people in his play and shows preference for certain people and different toys. The child will at this age start to test their parent’s responses to different behaviours to see how they react to them crying or laughing etc. Children can become fearful in some situations and will prefer their mother or regular care giver over everyone else. They will be able to finger feed themselves and will repeat gestures for attention and they will also extend their arms and legs to help when getting dressed. -3 years the child will imitate behaviours especially other children’s behaviours and their parent’s gestures and facial expressions, They will be more aware of themselves as separate from other people. They will be more excited about company of other children; they will also demonstrate growing independence and begin to show defiant behaviour. Their separation anxiety with their parents will begin to fade halfway between this years. Childhood ages 4-10 Childhood is the life stage when people develop control over their bodies.
Our emotions become more complex as we get older and we have more control over how we respond to them. We develop more communication skills and learn to relate to others. There’s a few things that have come up about Stephan Hawking’s childhood. One of them is at an early age their mother would all lie outside with them and stare up at the stars, Hawking’s mother said that “I could tell the stars would draw him” and she knew he would from then out want something to do with science and the sky when he was older.
Also there was a source that told us that they would all sit quietly at the dinner table and just read this could have affected at least two areas of development that I will talk about when I get to it. However it was said that he hated to be still and would always be on the go as a child and was a very active person even after he started Oxford University at the age of 17 he loved to dance and liked rowing and became one of the Oxford rowing teams coxswain.
Also after Hawkings was born his parents would go on to have two other children, Mary (1943) and Philippa (1947). A second son, Edward, was adopted in 1956. Physical Development If Stephan Hawking was a very active child this means his gross motor skills would be very developed as he would never be still and always be running about and even later on in life he carried on with doing active sports and activities. Apart from this there wasn’t much more information on his physical development.
At this age the average physical development of a child is: By the age of 4years a child should be able to bend down to pick up toys with their legs straight, can use ladders properly such as climbing up on play frames in the park, they should become better with ball games now finding it easier to kick and throw a ball and catching should begin to develop, if they own a trike (bike with stabilizers) they should now be very good on it, they should also be able to go up and down stairs efficiently, They may also run on their tip toes rather than the balls of their feet and also should be able to sit cross legged and stand on one leg for a short period of time.
This is where all the basic things they learn in playgroup come into play and their gross and fine motor skills become more developed such as they can now pick up toys without any trouble where as when they were so many months old this was not possible. At age 5years they should be able to dance, play all sorts of ball games; their balance should have improved, they should be able to walk along a thin line, can touch toes with straight legs and should just be more lively and energetic in general.
By the age of 6years they should be able to skip, ride a bike they will begin to lose any fat they have and gain muscle, they should be capable of cleaning their own teeth, they should be able to play jump robe, kick a ball and play catch. Many 6year olds will be interested in playing team sports this then will help boost social Development. Children of 6years will also be able to draw more neatly and clearly, and be able to write letters, they should also be more skilled at using scissors and they should now be learning or already know how to tie their shoe laces and do up buttons. 7years of age children should now have good hand eye coordination and they should have good balance by this age also they should be able to do basic gymnastic movements such as forward and backwards rolls and maybe somersaults.
By the age of 8years this is the age when the amount of practice and play done in the earlier years begins to manifest itself in skilfulness and in what might be called “athleticism. ” Motor skills like throwing, catching, kicking, balancing, rolling and batting approach the mature stage and allow some youngsters to be highly successful in traditional sports like baseball, soccer and basketball. Earlier years of practice also provide the foundation for success in sports like skiing, skating, golf, dance and gymnastics.
This year is also the time when children frequently begin to identify themselves as “athletic” or “un athletic,” thereby influencing their future involvement in sports and physical activity 8 years of age information took from this website: http://www. pbs. rg/parents/childdevelopmenttracker/eight/ At the age of 9years (the final age of childhood) The growth in your 9 year old child can vary greatly some children at this age can experience puberty the motor skills of 9-year-old children are smoother and stronger than when they were younger, You can expect to see a wide range of physical abilities among children this age.
Some 9year olds will have better coordination, balance, and endurance than others and they may take a great interest in a certain sport such as basketball, swimming, dance etc. Intellectual Development Stephen Hawkings family used to sit around the dinner table in silence at dinner times and they would all read a book, this means that intellectually Stephen Hawking should start learning to read from a younger age this means his reading age may be more advanced than other children of his age, even though this does not say what age he was when this used to happed it is presumed it would happen every day in the family home.
His mother would also take him out to look at the stars this would encourage his interest in the world at a young age and get him more interested and maybe this could have made him want to learn, she said ‘I knew the stars would draw him’ she could tell he was very interested in the world/stars. The intellectual developmental averages for a child in childhood are: at 4years of age, They should be skilful at holding pencils, can draw a house, can draw people with heads bodies legs and most fingers, May decide on what they’re drawing/painting before they complete it, Knows all primary colours and can build a 10 brick high tower and can copy a six brick pattern.
At the age of 5years a child should be able to; copy a 10 brick pattern, can count all fingers, can draw a more detailed house with windows chimney garden etc, they should be skilled at colouring in and doing jigsaws, can now copy a square triangle circle and the letters A, C, U, O, T, X, Y, V, H and L and should be able to correspond the time of day with everyday activities. At the age of 6years your child will start school and this is where they will learn all new and exciting things such as writing and reading and mathematics, They will be gaining a longer attention span the interest of the world around them will begin to increase, many 6year olds will begin to develop independent reading, enjoy writing stories, they will start to break words down into sounds vocab will increase and a lot more.
Age 7years they should: use a vocabulary of several thousand words, demonstrates a long attention span, will use serious logical thinking, should be able to understand reasoning, knows days months and seasons, able to solve complex problems and individual learning styles become clearer cut. At the age of 8 your child should be able to count to 1000, can do simple comprehension tasks, they will read for pleasure and their vocabulary will now be laying the ground work for academic achievement. Emotional Development Stephan Hawking came from a big family and had sisters and brothers one of which was adopted, this may not have affected him emotionally however sometimes siblings can feel like other of the siblings are favourite and this can often make them feel not good enough and want to impress their parents.
There are no records to say this happened to Stephan Hawking however there is a possibility it could have. At 4 years of age a few things they should be able to do include: identify basic emotions on pictures say if the picture looks happy or sad, they can identify care givers such as cares and parents. Obviously this shows Stephan Hawking knew who his mother was etc and maybe have a strong emotional bond as they would often go out and spend time together under the stars. By the age of 5years they will begin to describe their feelings and maybe learn how to control them a little bit by playing with friends/toys when sad, they may even start to imitate their care givers.
At the age of 6years they can often become overwhelmed by emotions and feel doubt or shame they will also have formed strong bonds with at least one member of the family and may prefer to send time with them. At the age of 7 years your child will be learning to cope with emotions and can fully be able to describe how they feel when asked will have formed strong friendships at school and will enjoy being around other children. At the age of 8years your child should have a clear favourite friend and will enjoy spending time with them the most, many children will be able to handle their feelings and will know why and how they feel this way which is a good thing as they can then learn how to change how they feel.