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Categories of client-server architecture and problems faced by hures

Paper type: Essay
Pages: 13 (3152 words)
Categories: Architect, Architecture, Cat
Downloads: 8
Views: 438

Question One:

Do you believe the jobs faced by Hures, both past and present, are alone? Why or why non?

I consider the job faced by Hures, both past and the present are non alone. I understand the fact that, client waiter computer science had an immense impact on the organisation but as with all new engineerings, there are many confronts and inquiries with difficult to happen replies.

To work out this issue, Hures can utilize the client/server architecture, which is divided into following classs:

1. Client waiter architecture

2. One-Tier architecture

3. Two-Tier architecture

4. Three-Tier architecture

5. N-Tire architecture

Client waiter architecture:

Client-server explains the relationship between two computing machine plans in one, the client plan, makes a service petition to another, the waiter plan, explains communicating between any terminal nodes and a shared resource. Waiters differ in size and functionality and can be anything from a Personal computer based server, to a midrange computing machine, to a chief frame.

Client waiter architecture is wholly flexible to Hures multiple client plan. Client server architecture in which the presentation, the application processing, and the information direction are logically a separate procedure, which makes it really flexible and expandible attack to edifice system package. Unlike typical client/server applications, this architecture services multiple clients, supports client disjunction and provides a flexible model for adding application.

Hures is a taking human resources service supplier utilizing TCP/IP. Hures should besides see utilizing a communicating protocol such as the shared variable which gives a higher degree application programming interface ( API ) and abstracting the lower degree inside informations, such as managing multiple clients.

One -Tier Architecture:

One tier application is a simple plan which no demands to entree the web when it is running. This one tier application includes most of the simple desktop applications like word processors or compilers. One tier architecture application runs on a individual computing machine.

Web browser is portion of a two-tier application ( a Web waiter being the other portion ) . But what happens if that Web browser downloads a Java applet and runs it? If the applet does n’t entree the web while running, is it a one-tier or two-tier application? For present intents, we will state that the self-contained applet is a one-tier application, since it is contained wholly on the client computing machine.

One-tier architecture has a immense advantage, simpleness being one of them. No One-tier applications handle any web protocols, so their codification is simple. The user ‘s petitions do n’t necessitate to traverse the web, delay for their bend at the waiter. This has the added consequence of non weighing down your web with excess traffic, and non weighing down your waiter with excess work.

Two-Tier architecture:

Two-tier architecture really has got three parts which are client, waiter, and protocol. The protocol links the spread between the client and waiter grades. The two-tier design is really effectual for web scheduling every bit good as for GUI plans, in which you can apportion functionality to the host. GUI codification lives on the client host, and the alleged concern logic lives on the waiter host. Two-tier application is a client-server plan with a GUI front-end written in a high-ranking linguistic communication like Java, C++ , or Ocular Basic. In the two-tier plan, you can see the clear separation between forepart and back grade.

Hures input is given by the HTTP get petition, via an HTML signifier which the user fills out. Its end product is one or more HTML files. All the computation happens on the waiter.

In some instances, you can compose a two-tier application without composing a waiter or planing a protocol. For illustration, you can compose a Web browser that talks to a Web waiter utilizing the HTTP protocol. However, if you have to compose your ain waiter, or design and put to death your ain protocol, you can pass more clip composing your plan than you would if you were composing a one-tier application.

Three-Tier architecture:

A three-tier will necessitate to hive away informations on a waiter. The information is stored on the file system. However data honestness issues originate when multiple clients inquire the waiter to make undertakings. Since file systems have concurrence controls at best common solution is to add a 3rd plan or database.

Databases specialize in storing, retrieving, and indexing informations. Merely as two-tier architecture separates GUI and concern logic, three-tier architecture lets you to divide concern logic and informations entree. You can besides offer extremely optimized information indices and retrieval methods, and supply for reproduction, backup, redundancy, and load-balancing processs specific to your informations ‘s demands. Separating codification into client and waiter codification increases the scalability of your application so does puting informations on a dedicated procedure, host, or series of hosts.

SQL RDBMS, like those from Oracle and Sybase, other database types. You may hold heard the names of some of these other types OODBs, ORDBs.

The three grade architecture has the undermentioned three grades:

Presentation Grade: This is by far the top upmost degree of the application. This grade displays information related to such services as browsing ware and shopping cart.

Application Tier: Is the logic grade pulled out from the presentation grade. This controls application by executing elaborate processing.

Datas Tier: consist of database waiter. Here the information is stored and retrieved.

N-Tire architecture:

N-tier architectures are the best thing to go on to computing machine since the vacuity tubing. Advocates of CORBA, EJB, and DCOM believe that every new application should be written, and every bing application should be retrofitted, to back up their favourite spec. In the existence of distributed objects therefore imagined, composing a new application is every bit simple as taking objects and directing messages to them in high-ranking codification. The distributed object protocol handles the wicked, low-level inside informations of parametric quantity marshaling, networking, turn uping the distant objects, dealing direction, and so forth.

A good illustration of N tier application is a stock trading system. In this system, we have multiple informations provenders arrive from different beginnings, multiple databases are accessed and multiple clients run specialised applications. It makes sense to unify together the disparate spots in this comforter with the yarn of common distributed object architecture, like CORBA or EJB

CORBA is a mechanism in package for normalising the method-call semantics between application objects that live in either in the same reference infinite ( application ) or remote address infinite ( same host, or remote host on a web ) . CORBA uses an interface definition linguistic communication ( IDL ) to stipulate the interfaces that objects will show to the outside universe.

In add-on to giving users with a linguistic communication and a platform-neutral distant process call specification, CORBA defines normally needed services such as minutess and security, events, clip, and other domain-specific interface mod

A CORBA execution comes with a tool called an IDL compiler which converts the user ‘s IDL codification into some language-specific generated codification. A traditional compiler so compiles the generated codification to make the linkable-object files for the application.


ORB seller supplied codification

ORB seller tool generated codification

User defined application codification


1. Client- waiter architecture enables the functions and duties of a calculating system to be distributed among several independent computing machines. Which are known to each other merely through web Advantages of this would be greater easiness of care I.e. it is possible to replace, fix, ascent or even relocate

2. All the informations are stored on the waiter, has a far greater security and protection. Severs can break command entree and resources, to vouch that merely those clients with the appropriate permission may entree and alteration informations.

3. Data storage is centralised, which makes it really easier to update.


1. Traffic congestion on the web will be an issue. As the figure of coincident client petition to a given waiter additions, the waiter can go over laden. Where with P2P web, its bandwidth really increases as more nodes are added.

2. The client-server paradigm lacks the hardiness of a good P2P web. Under client-server, should a critical waiter fail, clients ‘ petitions can non be fulfilled. In P2P webs, resources are normally distributed among many nodes. Even if one or more nodes depart and abandon a downloading file, for illustration, the staying nodes should still hold the informations needed to finish the download.

Question Two:

Suggest alternate architectures that could be used to get the better of the jobs faced by Hures ‘ current Client/Server engineering

The alternate architecture that could be used to get the better of this issue, would be the common object petition agent architecture ( CORBA ) . This is the most successful representative of an object-based distributed computer science architecture. CORBA ‘s service context gives an efficient and fashionable design and execution attack for edifice distributed systems. Java RMI ( Remote Method Invocation ) ca n’t easy back up crystalline service-context extension without incrementing the underlying protocol. This article describes a generic lightweight solution for back uping transparent and protocol-independent service-context extension over RMI. Reflection-based techniques are used to emulate what ‘s usually seen in protocol-specific service-context executions.

This article introduces you to a real-world solution and the related distributed-computing design construct, every bit good as Java contemplation techniques. We start with an overview of the CORBA object petition agent ( ORB ) interceptor and the service-context design architecture. Then a concrete execution illustration describes the existent solution and demonstrates how RMI supplication is really massaged to propagate service-context informations, such as dealing context, which is normally offered through the IIOP ( Internet Inter-ORB Protocol ) bed. Last, public presentation considerations are discussed.

Interceptor and service context in CORBA

In the CORBA architecture, the supplication interceptor plays an of import function in the map provided by the ORB runtime. By and large talking, four interception points are available through the ORB runtime. As shown in Figure 1, these interception points are for:

1. Out bound request message from the client procedure

2. In edge petition messages to the waiter procedure

3. Out bound response messages from the waiter procedure

4. In edge response messages to the client procedure

Question Three:

One of the suggestions proposed by Hures ‘ IS section is the usage of intranet web engineering. Analyze the pros and cons of such an thought.

An intranet is a personal computing machine web that uses cyberspace engineerings to firmly portion any portion of an administration ‘s information or operational system with its employees. Intranet portions most of the features of the Internet, but in at least one manner, it ‘s basically different. And merely as the Internet has had profound consequence on how we communicate, intranets have transformed the concern universe every bit good. HURES has little concerns have implemented this web substructure, bettering productiveness while cut downing costs.

As I mentioned earlier, the intranet has really similar features to internet, this besides backed by the fact that, intranet is built from the same constructs and engineerings used for the cyberspace, such as client-server computer science and the cyberspace protocol ( TCP/IP ) . All the good known cyberspace protocol such as HTTP ( net services ) , SMTP ( electronic mail ) and FTP ( file transportation ) are besides found in intranet.

Intranet is designed to utilize within little concern, university or administration. What makes them different from the cyberspace is that, internet are freely accessible, where as intranet is a private web by utilizing off-the-rack Internet engineering, intranets solve this job, doing internal communicating and coaction.

Traditionally, corporations relied on proprietary hardware and package systems to web its computing machines, a dearly-won and time-consuming procedure made more hard when offices are scattered around the universe. Even hardware platforms, file formats and package are non an easy undertaking.

Much easier

Intranets use HTML to make paperss and TCP/IP to convey information across the web. Information is stored on one or more company waiters and accessed by utilizing a web browser, this self-contained, miniature Internet can hold all the same characteristics — single place pages, newsgroups, e-mail — but entree is restricted to employees and contractors.

For Hures employees they already familiar with surfing the Web, larning how to voyage the company intranet requires small preparation. Intranet web pages have the same point-and-click interface. While it ‘s utile for an intranet to link to the Internet, it ‘s surely non indispensable. Even if they do link externally, companies restrict entree to their intranet from the Internet by constructing a firewall. With so much corporate information available on internal waiters, security is indispensable.

At the get downing life was simple. Computers were separate single devices. Programs had entree to all the computing machine ‘s input and end product through computer-connected devices. The life became complicated with innovation of webs. We now have to compose plans that depend on other plans running on far away computing machines.

A brief definition: – A distributed application is a system comprised of plans running on multiple host computing machines. The architecture of this distributed application is a study of the different plans, depicting which plans are running on which hosts, what their duties are, and what protocols determine the ways in which different parts of the system talk to one another.

Three-tier application adds a 3rd plan to the mix, normally a database, in which the waiter shops its informations. The three-tier application is an incremental betterment to the two-tier architecture. The flow of information is still basically additive: a petition comes from the client to the waiter ; the waiter requests or shops informations in the database ; the database returns information to the waiter ; the waiter returns information back to the client.

N-tier architecture, on the other manus, allows an limitless figure of plans to run at the same time, direct information to one another, utilize different protocols to pass on, and interact at the same time. This allows for a much more powerful application, supplying many different services to many different clients. However, the spring from three-tier to n-tier — or the spring from one- to two-tier, or from two- to three-tier, for that affair — must non be taken lightly. It ‘s easy to open a can of worms, but you ever need a bigger can to set them back in. The advocates of these engineerings are infatuated with their advantages, and frequently fail to advert the disadvantages of leaping to a more complicated architecture.

In this article, I will discourse the advantages and disadvantages of each manner of architecture, and give you some information that will assist you take the right architecture for your application. See these grounds before taking a merchandise because its fact sheet promises to do your life easier.

Here is the tabular array sum uping the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing Intranets:



Fast, easily, low cost to implement

Management frights loss of control

Connectivity with other system

Hidden costs

Many Tools available

Potential for pandemonium

Access to internal and external information

Unauthorized entree

Improves communicating

Information overload lowers productiveness

Can capture and portion cognition

Increase coaction and coordination

Supports links with clients and spouses

Question Four:

Do you believe the popularity of intranets and the Internet airs menaces to traditional Client/Server systems?

Intranet and your public web site on the unfastened Internet are two dissimilar information infinites and should hold two different user interface designs. It is tempting to seek to salvage design resources by recycling a individual design, but it is a bad thought to make so because the two types of site vary along several dimensions.

Intranet users are your ain employees who know a batch about the company, its organisational construction, and particular nomenclature and fortunes. Your Internet site is used by clients who will cognize much less about your company and besides care less about it. The intranet is used for mundane work inside the company, including some quite complex applications ; the Internet site is chiefly used to happen out information about your merchandises.

The sum of information varies. An intranet has between ten and a 100 times as many pages as the same company ‘s public web site. The difference is due to the general sum of work-in-progress that is documented on the intranet and the fact that many undertakings and sections ne’er publish anything publically even though they have many internal paperss.

Bandwidth and cross-platform demands vary. Intranets frequently run between a hundred and a 1000 times faster than most Internet users ‘ Web entree which is stuck at low-band or mid-band, so it is possible to utilize rich artworks and even multimedia and other advanced content on intranet pages. Besides, it is sometimes possible to command what computing machines and package versions are supported on an intranet.

Intranet and your web sites are two different information infinites. They should look different in order to allow employees cognize when they are on the internal cyberspace and when they have ventured out to the public site. Different looks will foreground the sense of topographic point and therefore do easy pilotage. Besides, doing the two information infinites feel different will do easy an apprehension of when an employee is seeing information that can be freely shared with the exterior and when the information is internal and confidential.

An intranet design should be much more task-oriented and less promotional than an Internet design. A company should merely hold a individual intranet design, so users merely have to larn it one time. Therefore it is acceptable to utilize a much larger figure of options and characteristics on an intranet since users will non experience frightened and overwhelmed as they would on the unfastened Internet where people move quickly between sites. An intranet will necessitate a much stronger navigational system than an Internet site because it has to embrace a larger sum of information. In peculiar, the intranet will necessitate a pilotage system to ease motion between waiters, whereas a public web site merely needs to back up within-site pilotage.

The extranet is a blend of the public Internet and the closed intranet and needs to be designed as such. Fundamentally, an extranet is a portion of the Internet since it is accessed by people in many different companies who will be utilizing your public web site but will non hold entree to the truly internal parts of your intranet. Therefore, the ocular manner and chief pilotage options of the extranet should be visibly similar to the design of your Internet site your concern spouses should experience that the two sites come from the same company. A elusive difference in the two manners ( e.g. , complimentary coloring material tones ) will assist stress the closed and confidential nature of the extranet.


1. Gallaugher, J. & A ; Ramanathan, S. “ Choosing a Client/Server Architecture. A Comparison of Two-Tier and Three-Tier Systems. ” Information Systems Management Magazine 13, 2 ( Spring 1996 ) : 7-13.

Writer: – Berson, Alex

Title: – Client-server architecture / Alex Berson.

Published: – New York: McGraw-Hill, c1992.

Seriess: – J. Ranade series on computing machine communications

2. Client Server endurance usher 3rd edition, by: Robort orfali, dan harkey, jeri Edwards, 1999 toilet wiley & A ; boies Canada

3. Adler, R. M. “ Distributed Coordination Models for Client/Sever Computing. ” Computer 28, 4 ( April 1995 ) : 14-22.

4. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.greatconnect.com/interapps.htm

5. hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CORBA # Overview

6. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-01-2000/jw-01-ssj-tiers.html? page=1

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Categories of client-server architecture and problems faced by hures. (2020, Jun 01). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/categories-of-client-server-architecture-and-problems-faced-by-hures-new-essay

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