Advantages And Disadvantages Of K-12 Education

Categories: Education


The Department of Education (commonly known as DepEd), an agency that tasked to manage and govern the Philippine system of basic education, pronounces the two additional years in the basic education of the Filipinos. According to them, this will not only benefit the Filipino students, but as well as the whole country and its citizens. Prior to the implementation of the K-12 curriculum guide, the Philippines was one of only three countries in the world and the only one in Asia that still had only 10 years in basic education.

The Department of Education asserts that with the implementation of such program, the problem of the unemployment in the country will be resolved. The K-12 programs is said to enhance the quality of basic education in the Philippines. This program gives the Filipino students a chance in the global competency. The K-12 programs will also support graduates seeking for work abroad. All in all, the now decongested K-12 curriculum will give Filipino students ample time to master the basic academics.

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“We need to add two years to our basic education. Those who can afford pay up to fourteen years of schooling before university. Thus, their children are getting into the best universities and the best jobs after graduation. I want at least 12 years for our public school children to give them an even chance at succeeding.” (Aquino III, 2011)

The K-12 or K-6-4-2 program includes six years of Elementary School (6 to 11 years old), four years of High School (12 to 16 years old) and 2 years of Senior High School (15 to 17 years old).

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Kindergarten started in school year 2011 to 2012. The new and enhanced curriculum in Grade 1 and first year high school started in school year 2012 – 2013. The first year senior high school or the eleventh year will begin in school year 2016 – 2017. The first graduates of the 12- year curriculum will be in 2018. (DepEd)


As stated above, Philippines is one of the three countries that still had 10 years in the basic education program thus seen as a disadvantage for the Filipino students to compete in the increasing global job market. To Individuals and Families there some advantages the k-12 curriculum can give such as:

  1. An enhanced curriculum will decongest academic workload, giving students more time to master competencies and skills as well as time for other learning opportunities beyond the classroom, thus allowing for a more holistic development.
  2. Graduates will possess competencies and skills relevant to the job market. The K-12 proposal will be designed to adjust and meet the fast-changing demands of society to prepare graduates with skills essential for the world of
  3. Graduates will be prepared for higher education. Due to an enhanced curriculum that will provide relevant content and attuned with the changing needs of the times, basic education will ensure sufficient mastery of core subjects to its graduates such that graduates may opt to pursue higher education if they choose to.
  4. Graduates will be able to earn higher wages and/or better prepared to start their own business. There is a strong correlation between educational attainment and wage structure and studies specific to the Philippine setting show that an additional year of schooling increases earnings by 7.5%. This should also allow greater access to higher education for self-supporting students.
  5. Graduates could now be recognized abroad. Filipino graduates, e.g. engineers, architects, doctors, etc., could now be recognized as professionals in other countries. Those who intend to study abroad will meet the entrance requirements of foreign schools.

And also there are some advantages the society and the economy can get from the k-12 program such as: The economy will experience accelerated growth in the long run. The objective of the K+12 programs is to improve quality of basic education. Several studies have shown that the improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by as much as 2%. Studies in the UK, India and US show that additional years of schooling also have positive overall impact on society.

The Philippine education system will be at par with international standards. K+12 will facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals following the Washington Accord and the Bologna Accord.

A better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socioeconomic development. The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education system will contribute to the development of emotionally and intellectually mature individuals capable of pursuing productive employment or entrepreneurship or higher education disciplines.


The K-12 program does proves to help the students as it gives them ample time to study the basic academics and to give them the ability to compete with the other students worldwide, but the program also has it’s disadvantages.

With the additional two years of education, parents will have to provide more money (for tuition, transportation, allowances, etc.). Middle class and high class families would rather have little to no problems at all. But majority of the Filipinos are having a hard time in providing a budget for the primary needs of their families. This only creates a problem for those parents who can’t afford high tuition fees that seemingly increase year after year.

Filipino citizens are also concerned as to how the government will fund the educational programs, specially for public schools. “K-12 is the flagship program of this administration and therefore education sector should be given the funds it needs for successful implementation.” Said Emmalyn Policarpio, an elementary teacher from Valenzuela City and the Secretary General of the Teachers’ Dignity Coalation (TDC)

The TDC group expressed that the mere signing of the law would not resolve existing problems of the education sector without first resolving the resource shortages. The TDC said that the program does not guarantee a solution to the dismal condition of the Philippine public school system. It is true that the 12-year of basic educational system provides enough time to study and master the basic academics but most people, specially the parents see this as a disadvantage as it cost time and money. The K-12 program might not be as effective as in the other countries if the country are still faced with problems such as lack of classrooms, facilities, comfort rooms and teachers who are not well-trained to adjust to the K+12 curriculum. Also the ability of the government to release funds that would shoulder all the expenses in adopting this education system is another pressing concern. Therefore, K-12 education system will not work unless all of the other pressing matters would be addressed.


  1. The K-12 program provides ample time for students to master the basic education and global competence.
  2. The program will not work if the government doesn’t resolve the funding of the resources.

For me I am not against the K-12 program you can say that I am PRO K-12 because having this program may have some disadvantages such as parents having to work harder because of higher tuition fees because of the extra 2 years in school. But if we look thoroughly and understand the facts that by using the K-12 program we can provide students with more knowledge and be more globally competent. And students will be more critical in thinking and in problem solving. They can master the basic education and be more skillful in the fields that they chose. Personally for me adding 2 years is nothing compared to the knowledge and virtues we will learn and the experience too. Having the K-12 program can open up more possibilities for success. And it can also help make the Philippines more fruitful. It can help solve other problems such as poverty.

It can help lessen poverty because children who only finished high school can now get jobs that’s not under the minimum wage. And less poverty means less crime because some people do crime because of money. And people having stable job can help lessen the effects of people who will do anything for money. And the K-12 program can also solve overpopulation and less children abused. Because one cause of overpopulation is due to over mating of those who have no jobs because they have nothing to do which can lead to children being abandoned , being sold, and being abused. Let me state what President Benigno Aquino III said “We need to add two years to our basic education.

Those who can afford pay up to fourteen years of schooling before university. Thus, their children are getting into the best universities and the best jobs after graduation. I want at least 12 years for our public school children to give them an even chance at succeeding.” In the last line he states that children who can’t afford to attend private schools would be given an even chance at succeeding. This helps the children look at the world that even if they didn’t have a good start they still have their fair chance in life this is what the K-12 program provides us with a fair chance in life that every people will be treated the same.



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Advantages And Disadvantages Of K-12 Education. (2016, Sep 16). Retrieved from

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