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Thesis Statement: In this article I will examine 2003 Iraq War within the framework of Bush Doctrine with using academic essays and peer-reviewed journal. This article based on Bush Doctrine and impact of political leaders to make decision in international arena.
In this study, I will examine 2003 Iraq War within the framework of Bush Doctrine. In 2003 Iraq war started and in 2011 ended. It also called second gulf war. First to examine the changing American foreign policy after the September 11 attacks. In the US-Iraq war primarily reasons are; As a realist interests to control Iraq’s oil and energy routes, and to guarantee Israel’s security in Iraq against Iran, the Middle East, to be closer to the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The idealistic rhetoric is “Freedom and Democracy”. The main reason of the war is September 11 attacks in America. To understand American invasion of Iraq firsly we should understand Bush Doctrine. And then we can understand main reasons of war which occured in Iraq in 2003.
Keywords: 9/11 Attacks, Bush Era, Bush Doctrine, American foreign Policy, 2003 Iraq Invasion
EFEGİL’s article (2009) After the 9/11 attacks, Bush suggested a new project with the name ” Broader Middle East Project”. The president Bush asserted that Middle East Countries would have democratic and peaceful regimes. But, Bush could not achieve his aims. On the contrary, new problems emergen such as increase in the competition among the grear powers, problems of democratisation, fighting against terrorism. After the Cold War U.S. was only one hegemonic power.
Amim of America, and it olsa means aim of Bush, was preventing potential hogemon powers. According to Bush, only America can bring peace to world so America must be always hegemon. he implemented two concepts, preemtive and preventive war. This article include Bush doctrine and his principle/strategy detailedly.
Bush was supporting Unilateralism which means being headstrong in foreign policy. Securitywas also important thing for him. War against terrorism matters for his foreign policy. Afghanistan and Iraq attacks were made according to this strategy of Bush.
Ataman & Özkan Gökcan’ article (2012).After september 11, terrorism was a global problem in all over the world. During this period U.S. foreign policy has changed with George W. Bush. Bush and his team started to adopt a more aggressive and unileteral management. The aim of this study is to make an analysis based on the Grand ” Unified Theory”. Result of analysis that is the succesful theory in explaining U.S. foreign policy reconstituted after the 9/11 attack. This article gives us, according to period how American foreign policy changing of U.S. foreign policy from this article.
Before the Bush Doctrine and American foreing policy, there are four basic strategy of America in foreign policy implementetion.
First, Ensuring National Unity USA, after the declaration of independence to ensure that national unity has entered into an intense fight and the first threats in front to maintain its independence in this direction aimed to eliminate. For this, US tried to prevent presence of the European colonial powers on continent.
Second Being a continental power With the Monroe Doctrine the United States has declared its responsibility on the continent of America for the first time. USA, adopted a foreign policy of noninterference in European politics. In return, America said that, politics should not interfere with the European states of the American continent. If any european countries has colonial enterprise to America, confrontation with America. In this sense, America tried to provide its security and superiority against west countries. America with the Montroe Doctrine, can easily maintain their existence in western peninsula. USA, has been providing accelerate national unity, continental expansion and diffusion process thanks to this doctirine.
Third Being global power In 1898, Spain and U.S war which is the start of the US global hegemonic struggle is the US has been a major turning point in terms of foreign policy.
Until the middle 20th century main trends shaping American foreign policy is isolationism. Until America the entering WW2 provide isolationism policy but the end of the Second World War was the beginning of a new era declared that the United States is a global hegemon.
Fourth Global hegemony and hegemonic stability As we all know, there was a bipolar system in the world during the Cold War. After the Cold War, Soviet Union collapsed. US shaped their policy according to bipolar system. US maintained a foreign policy based on the Soviet Union and maintained its hegemonic power in the system during the Cold war. During this time US implemented containment and deterrence policies until 9/11 attacks.
Ağır’s article, (2006-2007)In this article, democratic peace theory and preventive war have been employed by the U.S. for against fighting terrorism, effects of unileteral actions with important actors such as EU China and Russia, will be analyzed. And also democratic peace theory and Bush doctrine relations was mentioned in this article.
20th century’s great struggle between a free and totalitarian regimes, which resulted in the victory of freedom. A single model for national success: freedom, democracy and free
Attempt. These values maybe can not be to world more security but can better. According to Bush administration, only there is one way to achieve this I mean better world, it is spreading democracy. Not only in Iraq but also in all Middle East countries. Bush’ idea, based on Democratic Peace Theory. According to democratic peace theory, democratic countries do not fight each other. The existence of democratic regimes will be the guarantor to provide peace and stability in Middle East and creating a fair state will be able to prevent future interstate conflicts.
Gültekin’s article (2008). September 11, 2001 United States (USA) ‘Attacks against civilians and military targets in the American foreign policy, therefore, has been an important milestone in international politics.
The United States and the American people has himself felt so vulnerable and in danger for the first time after the attack. After the 9/11 attack American foreign policy has changed. American foreign policy was more aggressive and unilateral. There are two concept. These are preemtive and preventive war. Preemtive means, first attack in presence at immediate threat. Preventive means, threat is not clear/ immediate attack before the other one becomes a threat. Bush emphasize security and war against terrorism. These are foreign issues. Bush’s management was a more inward-looking government before the 9/11 attacks.
Usta’s article (2009) In this article, author wrote about from first Gulf war to now American’s policies an Middle East. I will use only some part of this article. these parts will be; 9/11 attacks, Bush Era, National Security Strategy, Bush Doctrine and 2003 Iraq War. In the period after the Cold War, US hegemony and the globalization of big government is seen as an obstacle to resume their place has been taken after September 11 terrorist networks. U.S was starting to use preventive attacks against composed new threats and Bush also tried to justify with saying that he did it for the security of the whole world. A month after the September 11, the US began the invasion of Afghanistan late after, in March 2003 invasion og Iraq. Result of this invasion the US purpose was understood. Aim of US was trying to globalize its hegemony. US showed it to the whole world. The aim of US foreign policy after the September 11 attacks; the only obstacle to the hegemony not to prevent the growth of rival powers, has also agreed to the move to the absolute dominance of the international system. For this purpose, US entered into a very aggressive and unilateral foreign policy. US foreign policy after September 11 was quite aggressive. The best example of this is the invasion of Iraq. Before the invasion of Iraq American administration asserted that Saddam Hussein produced weapons of mass destruction. And also asserted that reletions between the Iraq and Al-quade. America olsa said that Iraq does not comply to UN resolution. Weapons of mass destruction in Saddam’s hands are threat to American security. There was no evidence about Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction and also UN could not find proof adequately. These developments show us that The main reason for the invasion of different. On the US invasion of Iraq, the main and most important reason to maintain the basic material of establishing hegemony and strengthen control over Iraqi oil.
YILMAZ’s article (2010).One of Bush’s goal is democratic promotion in middle East as if. This article goals to question how much US democratisation effort in the Middle East. Are they feasible and realistic? The paper aldo focused on reletionship between islam and modernization finally implementations of effort to bring democracy to Middle East by US.
Somuncuoğlu’s article (2013). During the George W. Bush promotion of democracy is the best method to fighting terrorism. This article examines American democracy promotion policy in Central Asia. During the Colored Revolution Kyrgyzstan regime changed by Bush administration as the success of democracy promotion policy. But, result of this policy American reputation and power has been affected badly in Central Asia. Author mentioned What is the colored revolution?
Pirinççi’s article (2008). After September 11, terrorism was a global problem in all over the world. National Security Strategy in 1991 was an announced. Aim of this strategy, fighting terrorism and making improvements in the military field. Aim of America was preventing potential hegemon powers. According to Bush, only America can bring peace to world so America must be always hegemon. US is the only global power that effects world political, economic and military aspects. It is only hegemonic power after Cold War. Bush Management’s preference has been to implement the National Security Strategy tightly. There are two major strategies of the US these are “Realistgrand strategy-oriented” and “liberal oriented grand strategy “. Accordingly realist grand strategy-oriented; containment, deterrence and global power protect to maintain the balance: liberal-oriented large strategy, based on the market economy, democracy, organized and institutionalized political relationships to protect and grow.
Iraq is rich in natural resources, like many countries in the Middle East. Accordingly, after gaining its independence, the Western states have tried to maintain their influence in Iraq. The world’s largest technology vendor in the US, was dependent on foreign sources for production and it also wants to ensure Iraq has the world’s 2nd largest oil reserves and the government wanted to keep this under control. After 9/11 attacks America tried to legitimate its attack with using these pretext: Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction threat to world peace, Iraq did not allow the work the weapons inspectors in violation of the UN resolutions.
Before the war, the US and British governments think that Iraq has nuclear weapon and it threated the security of the country especially coalition countries. They had no evidence about Iraq nuclear weapons. On the grounds that there may be chemical weapons, coalition powers attacked to Iraq. Some US officials accused that Saddam Hussein is providing support to al-Qaeda but this relationship was never proven. US claim that the war would lead to peace, democrcy and human rights to Iraq. For the developing democracy in Iraq, Iraq had to these features: a developed economy, ethnic homogeneity, strong government institutions, such as the democratic experience in the country history. Iraq does not have these features and it was known by everyone. America attacked to Iraq with using these justifications.
US has undergone to an unexpected attack on its own territory on September 11, 2001. Terrorist attack performed by 4 airliners has been the focus of attention of all the world on a sudden. The first plane has crashed into the World Trade Center is American Airlines flight 11, it was the first airplane to be kidnapped on September 11, 2001 attacks. A plane hit into the North Tower of the World Trade Center. The second plane, flight United 175, Boston aircraft. after the first plane hit , perhaps live terrorist attact has been seen by world televisions. In September 11 attacks, the biggest feature of US which is the super power in all world is that casualties has been occured in own land for the first time. After the attacks, Bush in his speech said that these attacks were carried out by enemies of fredoom and democracy against to Western civilization , their main goal is to intimidate the free and democratic West, but has said that they will not allow it. This will be the speech found the Bush doctrine in future.
After the attacks of September 11, the United States’s view to the world has changed . The priority of the United States in the foreign policy was concept of war with terrorism and target countries were listed . A radical transformation has experienced in U.S. politics and society with this event.
U.S. State Department officials in charge of Central Asia, for instance, Elizabeth Jones, in new case after September 11, , emphasized that the U.S. has three main national interest in Central Asia. These are was defined as : “preventing the spread of terrorism, the rule of law, providing tools for political and economic reforms, assuring security and transparent production of Hazar Energy Resources.” (U.S. Congress, 2001c: quoting from 6 Somuncuoglu: 2013)
With the end of the Cold War, the bipolar world system collapsed. The new world order was established. The attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on 11 September 2001 was just the beginning of changes in the economic, political and military. Foreign policy priorities of the United States changedaround the concept of the war on terrorism , threat definitions were concretized, target countries were identified and listed. September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the U.S. was regarded as the turning point not just for US but also for the other countries. The world was started to be re-established on the war axis now, not on peaceful axis. According to President Bush, the United States was at war with organisers of the September 11 attacks. All the evidence was pointing that Osama bin Laden and the Taliban and they are Muslims who were controlling/managing the significant portion of Afghanistan.
In the Cold War years radical Islam terrorists has taken place of communism anymore which was coded as “enemy-other” . Now U.S. who took the whole world behind him, began to count the days to show the power and strengthen its hegemony. September 11 both had prepared the ground for radical change in foreign policy began with the Bush administration and also brought US in critical consolidation to Bush administration in ideological and strategic levels. USA defined September 11 terrorist attacks as “war action againsts USA” rather than “terrorist” actions. Although the starting of new world order declared as 1989, September 11 is the date of triggering and starting in a political. During the period of 1991, National Security Strategy was announced in Bush period. In the strategy, it was emphasized that the U.S. is the only superpower. In this context, it was emphasized that staying as a free and independent country is the main security goal of the United States.
George W. Bush’s discourse about war with terror all over the world which destroyed the Clinton’s discourse of democratic, peace and international justice all over the world, has eliminated all barriers to use of military force. (Kurtbağ, 2010: quoted by Ataman and Gökcan from 305, 2012) After September 11, U.S. has started to use pre-emptive method against those who threaten national security. He tried to justify it by saying they are doing this for the safety of all the world.
After September 11, the aim of US in foreign policy was not just preventing development of opposing forces in front of his hegemony, but also was to get his absolute sovereignty accepted by the entire international system. For this purpose, U.S went into quite aggressive and unilateral foreign policy orientation, he started to spread extreme for the first time in his history. In our opinion, the foreign policy of the United States in Bush period, can be explained best in the excessive expansionism of alleged the Unified theory developed by Snyder. ( Ataman and Gokcan,2012, on: p.217)
US got agressive in his foreign policy. The best example of this has been the invasion of Iraq.
After September 11, interest of U.S. not just on Iraq , but also on all Middle East was to have natural resources and under control that area. American foreign policy was aggressive and one-sidedin Bush era. The September 11 attacks laid the groundwork for implementing policies. The US has legitimated what he did under the name of fighting against war after he exposed to terrorist attacks in own land. He did not listened to his opponents in the national and international arena. The expansionist policies of the United States could lead to an alliance of other States, and it happened. States such as Russia, China and Turkey have taken a stance against the aggressive policies of the United States. Although Turkey was a loyal ally of the United States during the Cold War , he did not land American troops in the invasion of Iraq.
The U.S. has tried to provide security through expansionism, but this method has harmed himself most of the time. Since 2001, U.S. has spent over 1.2 trillion dollars for military operations to literally put his hegemony in Afghanistan, Iraq and other regions. (Belasco, 2011, quoted by Ataman ve Gökcan from p. 5,2012. 219). This situation illustrates that although U.S. had a huge profit by taking control of the natural resources of Iraq and Afghanistan; in fact in short period, he has had to endure a serious cost exceeded his earnings.
The doctrine has four elements: a strong belief in the importance of a state’s domestic regime in determining its foreign policy and the related judgment that this is an opportune time to transform international politics; the perception of great threats that can be defeated only by new and vigorous policies, most notably preventive war; a willingness to act unilaterally when necessary; and, as both a cause and a summary of these beliefs, an overriding sense that peace and stability require the United States to assert its primacy in world politics ( Jervis 2003: 365).
Bush administration who determined establishing world system which secured human rights and political and economic freedoms as long-term foreign policy goal, agreed to implement strategies expressed below:
In order to satisfy these aims, Bush administration adopts these foreign policy actions;
Taking the lead in 2000, Bush put aside the multi-sidedness principle in Afghanistan and Iraq interventions. He tried to legitimate one-sided military intervention actions. He intervened against Taliban regime in Afghanistan and Al-Kaida terrorist originations. In 2003 USA performed one-sided military intervention to Iraq. American troops took over the Baghdad in short time. Although President Bush claims that war is over at May 1st 2003, resistance to USA troops is continued. (Efegil,2009:109, 110, 111)
The world’s only “superpower” and the Bush administration acting on the idea that the right to do as it wants for its own interests despite opposition from the whole world it wanted to enter Middle East. Nobody can say stop against America’s imperyalist attitudes. After 11 September, “before you hit the shot” the approach can be summarized briefly, to hit the country posing a threat “Bush Doctrine” ‘s emerged. A move against Iraq, Bush’s new doctrine is considered as an attempt to put into practice.
Before the invasion of Iraq, in order to justify the invasion, the American administration claimed that Saddam produces weapons of mass destruction (WMD), there is a connection between el-Kaida who is deployed in Iraq, and 11th September terrorist attacks, Iraq disregarded the United Nations’ Rules. President Bush drew attention to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) with exaggerated statements, and claimed that Saddam will use these weapons in a way that threatens USA’s national security. ( Ataman & Gökcan,2012: s.217)
Despite of the United Nations report that states there is not sufficient evidence related to WMD invasion of Iraq in March 2003, and no WMD found in the country, revealed that the real reason the occupation is different. The real and most important reasons for invasion of Iraq, was the desire of domination on Iraq’s oil. Even though The U.S Administration states other reasons also, one of the most important reasons for U.S. invasion of Iraq, was gaining full control over the oil in Iraq.
The main goal of George W. Bush is controling the Middle East. He use some strategy to control this area. He tried many different ways to dominate the world. The most important target of America was Middle East. The other countries and acctors with in the country, can not say anything. America was/is a superpower so it moved what it want. In invasion of Iraq America has some interests, the most important one is Iraq’s oil. Within the framework of Bush Doctrine on the grounds of Iraq has nuclear weapons, America attacked to Iraq. America improved the idea of preemtive war with using this idea it moved in Middle east. But the real reasons of intervention of Iraq was different. America tanks to its power can do what it want in the all over the world. One example of this was the war in Iraq.
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