Robert Owen, Charles Babbage, Andrew Ure, and Charles Dupin, are four people that tried to provide management solutions to the early companies and organizations.
Robert Owen was a successful entrepreneur in his time. However he tried to oppose industrialization because he thought that will do more harm than good. He opened his first factory in Manchester England at the age of eighteen. He explained his management style as follows ”I looked very wisely at the men in their different departments, although I really knew nothing.
But by intensely observing everything, I maintained order and regularity throughout the establishment, which proceeded under the circumstances far better than I had anticipated.” Owen continued to pursue for more knowledge so he closed his company sold his equipments and become an employee in Mr. Drink water firm. He learnt first by just observing the way the workers performed their duties, at the end he was able to win the employees confidence because he has improved their working condition and also rearranged the implements of the company.
With this great success Owen left on his own and later form a partnership business between 1874 and 1875. in his new business he face the problem of shortage of workers, so he came up with another strategy of employing children who worked for thirteen hours a day including their mill time of one and quarter hour. this step he took become imperative because he observed that it was difficult for him to motivate the rich adult to leave their home in order to come and work in their firm.
Although his partners did not accept all his reforms but he aimed at introducing community social responsibilities by improving the living condition of New landmark community. Owen observed an economic and social problem and came up with solutions on how to tackle it. To him the best way to solve the problem is by improving on their farming implements so as to have a great harvest. In doing that he made plan to use spade instead of plough and to fix a more appropriate standard rate for exchange of product of labour will be carried out without limit.
At New Lanark, Owen went another mile stone by introducing the four colors to rate his workers he chose this style because he felt that moral sauce will instill discipline more than the use of corporal punishment. This invention motivated the deficient to overcome their deficiencies and the strong to do more so as to maintain their positions. This surely brought departmental pride and healthy competition among the various departments. Furthermore Owen prefer to use human labour than machinery because he felt human labour will yield more profit, show concern to people and reduce human misery than the use machineries. Owen declared a total war against capitalism and also blamed the church for accepting it to him he felt that was an evil thing to do. In addition to that Owen continued in his disagreement with the doctrine of the church by making workers to fill that they will receive their reward here after and that made him to be actively involved in politics and even sponsored a bill to prohibit the employment of children under the age of ten to work and to prohibit them working at night. This fierce campaign succeeded because a law was passed limiting the employment of children under the age of nine. Many felt Owen had become mad.
In frustration for not achieving his goal, Owen went to the US and bought a land for ?30,000 and named it New Harmony, as a socialist his aim for the new society was to provide happiness to all his members. He intends to achieve that by creating a new currency based on credit labour, there will be general training for everyone so that everybody body will be able to work in other field that is not the field of their specialization. he also provided gender equality and freedom of speech. Many people pick the jobs but problems erupted some felt they could still be fade without putting their best and others worked in accordance to Owen principles. Apart from that there was also the challenge of feeding and the morale of the workers started going down, to solve this problem Owen assume the responsibility of being the governor but this did not go well with the people because they felt he has bridge the contract he hard with them. so failing to reorganize them he gave up and left in 1827.
After he left the New Harmony, he became very broke emotionally and financially and realized that his pass experience could not work everywhere he then try to help the poor by introducing a law by forming a community corporation and making people to share with others from the surplus of their firms so that everybody will things in common and eliminate lack. He fought specialization because he felt everyone will be able to do more than one thing and should be able to change to what they wish to do at any time. ”Leading the British Trade Union movement, a working-class movement based on the idea of collective action to control the means of production. He failed. Nevertheless, Robert Owen, a Utopian socialist, sowed the first seeds of concern for the human element in industry”.
Charles Babbage lived between 1792 and 1871 was a genus and did extremely well in management thought well before Frederick W. Taylor. He is regarded as a leader of operation research and management science. He formulated a scientific management theory and put it into practice long before the period of scientific management in US. He was born in Devonshire, England. His very rich father worked with a bank. HE inherited his father’s wealth and used it in pursuing lifelong quest ”into the causes of all those little things and events which astonish the childish mind.” He was very curios right from childhood and could destroy anything just to find the content there off and everybody made fun of him but he remained focus.
Furthermore Charles Babbage develop the first mechanical calculator and 91 years later its principles was use to develop Burroughs’s accounting machines analytic engine. Babbage continue with his inventions even when he lost the government because of his attitude. He the concept of Joseph Marie Jacquard punch card to device storage and operations, Herman Hollerith later used the invention to invent the earliest practical punched-card tabulating machine, Babbage device have all the features of modern day computers and also invented what look like the present day printer before he died. He had a friend called Augusta Ada the daughter of Lord Byron who is mathematician. she wrote series of instructions for Babbage computer but she however warn people not to rely completely on the machine for it is it can only do what human have ask it to do. Babbage later developed a computer program. Babbage wrote books ”As a management scientist, Babbage was interested in machinery, tools, the efficient use of power, developing counting machines to check quantity of work, and economy in the use of raw materials; these he called the mechanical principles of manufacturing. ” he also proposes a profit sharing formula for workers that will motivate and optimized profit. he was a visionary in management.
Ure was ”a professor of chemistry and natural philosophy at Anderson’s College in Glasgow”, he was an educationalist. He educate adult workers in sciences but when pressure became too much managers shifted their focus of training to clerks, artisans etc. Ure educated many people where spread all over UK. Ure influenced the work of Dupin and Henri Fayol. Henri Fayol’s work gave rise to present day management theory. As an educationist Ure continued in the industrial education because that is where he had concern. Though the workers understood him very well, but instead of the workers to appreciate the management, they embarked on strikes that caused a lot of damage the factory and in court Ure was not satisfied with the three witnesses they provided because he felt they lack merit. He also belief that in conclusion ”Ure’s focus on the cotton industry precluded any generalization about management, but saw progress in the advance of mechanization and the condition of labor.”
He is the second is the second person to lead in industrial education he was a French engineer but was named professor of mathematics and economics. Proffessor Jean Baptiste Say a professor of industrial economy was his colleagues Say brought Adam Smith idea of management being the 4th factor of production. They both conduct evening classes for workers together and did a lot to bring positive change to their environment.