Introduction

Speaking skill is considered to be one of the most important skills of all the four skills which should be mastered by all students. By using speaking students are capable of expressing and conveying their meanings, thoughts ideas, beliefs and opinions orally to other people in a dialogue form even it is a formal or informal dialogue inside or outside the school. As known speaking is considered to be the most common tool in the communicational process.

Learning English language in an Arabian country, where it is taught as a foreign language is considered to be a big challenge that requires a big effort from both the teacher and the learner, because there are few opportunities for students to practise this foreign language inside the classroom and there are too few opportunities to practise it outside the classroom as there is no place for practicing this skill instead of the mother tongue.

Using English language especially outside the classroom is not easy for EFL students.

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Because the majority of learners are frightened of speaking so many of them are very worried about their lack of fluency and proficiency even though most of them have a wide range of enough vocabulary and a good grammar. In order to solve this problem, it has been suggested and recommended that learners must be provided with the maximum opportunities and space to practise this skill enough and interact with others(Starnes, 2012).

In order to acquire proficiency and efficiency in any foreign language, learners should use this language clearly and meaningfully (Beckett & Miller, 2006: 229).

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Learners have to own some language elements before the process takes place as it is an active and productive skill (Baruah, 2006: 160). Speaking helps students produce those units of meaning in phrases and clauses, not just word by word (Gruber-Miller, 2006: 12).

Many learners of foreign languages are interested in speaking skills and improving their ability of this skill more than any other skills (listening, writing, and reading) as they need it more in their communication with others(Gold, J., & Gibson, 2017).

Learning English language successfully is associated with mastering speaking skill and having the ability to speak English efficiently in the other hand mastery in speaking skill is always equivalent to knowing the English language.(Folse, 2006 & Richards, 2008).

Speaking as the main part of the oral productive skill in which both the sender and the receiver (speaker and listener) are actively involved in the educational process where they can easily negotiate and interpret meanings. The speaker (sender) has to encode the meanings he/she wants to convey to the listener to be able to understand and interpret the message clearly. Both of the speaker and the listener (sender and the receiver) must catch and deliver the meaning that the message includes is he/she has speaking competence. He/she must have many chances and opportunities to catch competence. Motivation is needed in practicing as it is the cause which leads anyone to do anything (practicing speaking) when students want to learn a new language they have many reasons to learn this language (Neuman & Pinkham, 2014).

Teaching language’s skills especially speaking skill require the teacher and the learner to have complex activates as it needs student’s capacity like fluency, grammar, organization, pronunciation and content. Students are described as good students and good in content if they have the ability to use concepts and words which are suitable for the experience and knowledge of any general audience, They are described to be good in pronunciation if they have a high standards of English accent, They are described to be good in organizing if they have the ability to manage the ideas which are related to the text structure in the chosen topic without any hesitation and they are called to have good grammar, if they have the ability to make sentence without errors of grammar or word order(Shumin, 2002).

Motivation is considered to be the main element and vital key to learn any language, learning process as it is regarded as an antidote for all behavior and learning outcomes in the educational process. Richard (2008) mentioned that all students are generally motivated to set and achieve their goals to learn any language. Their reasons are the goals of the process of learning and mastering that language.

On learning language motivation which is generally considered to be a reason for success or failure of the learner when he intends to learn a new language, motivation plays a vital role in the process of mastering the new language (Dörnyei, 2001).

Robb (2015) stated that without motivation even the best teaching strategies and the best appropriate curricula and methods cannot guarantee success in learning the new language as motivation presents the initial power which pushes the learner to acquire the new language he/she intends to learn. Therefore in order to acquire a long term success and achievement in language learning learners must have an initial and motivation.

(Dörnyei&Guilloteaux,2008) consider motivation is the vital role during learning English language especially while learning speaking skill which is thought to be a neglected skill and many learner lack this skill in EFL settings, he also asserted that there is a great relationship between learners’ motivation to learn and speak English and hidden reasons behind students’ participation in speaking skill in English classrooms.

It is known that speaking skill despondency provoking skill as when individual try to speak the target language and practise it they usually experience a very high level of despondency so they often avoid and do not want to speak, practise or even participate in classroom’s conversations and activites (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986).

Many students usually do not have the desire to speak foreign languages in the classrooms for many reasons such as their fear of making mistakes, lack grammar and vocabulary, low self-confidence, lack of fluency, feeling confused if their classmates laugh at their errors and mistakes, fear of teachers and setting unrealistic goals like:( negative manners and attitudes, negative self-perceptions of language competence, being good as native speakers((2008); Shumin, 2002; Ariyanti, 2016; Tinio (2009).;Richards,J.C.Subaşı,2010; Woodrow, 2006).

Giving attention to these reasons during language classrooms, many teachers who intend and reduce and lessen these negative factors and create a comfortable atmosphere away and without anxiety by making use of many activates such as role-playing, collaborative learning, games, task-based language teaching, pair and group work and adopting communicative teaching strategies and methods.

Nowadays teachers’ roles have become very different than the last decades by using the latest language teaching methods and approaches teachers play many roles in the teaching process such as participant, adviser and facilitator who create a comfortable atmosphere, encourage learners to practise and communicate by using the target language rather than their mother tongue(Larsen-Freeman & Anderson, 2013).

Macaro (2005) and Arends (2007) asserted that teachers play a very important role in motivating students to learn and practice the target language, they suggested that there are some practices that teachers can adopt to support motivation. Those practices are: providing appropriate homework, checking for understanding, creating positive classroom environment, having clear goals and expectations, using cooperative learning, providing positive encouragement, and stimulating cognitive thought.

Many studies mentioned that Practice makes perfect–constantly look for opportunities to do so in this study the researcher not only wants to make students cooperate together but also make use of this cooperation by giving students a real chance to practise the target language by using jigsaw strategy in order to improve speaking skill and students’ motivation to speak English without any anxiety.

It is known that there are many preparatory Schools which still use traditional methods to teach speaking skill, as the teacher only gives the traditional material and explains it as usual then he/she gives some example and supporting it be giving exercises. This traditional method is no longer effective because students feel bored and they also need much time to speak the language effectively and master speaking English in conversation or communication. Since, the researcher will get rid of this traditional method and use other method that will be able to improve the students’ speaking skill. this methods is called Jigsaw, it is focused in cooperative learning and group working that can build the students’ communication ability and increase motivation to speak English with others even if they are foreign people or friends as by using this effective method students will be able to share, learn, explain, retell the story, discuss certain topic in English in their groups and they also will be able to give response and opinion for other students in the groups, beside that, this method is also based on peer tutoring work group and cooperative learning so students will express their ideas without any shy and they will ask questions if there is some difficulties to their friends who are clever without being freighted of their teacher also the method can effectively motivate students to study and increase teaching learning process.

Tamah (2000) viewed cooperative learning as the following: ‘Cooperative learning is a successful strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject .Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it”.

Jigsaw is a learning-centered approach strategy which Elliot Aronson and his students invented and developed in the 1970s at the University of Texas and the University of California, since that time hundreds of teachers and classrooms have used jigsaw .(Tewksbury, B. J. (1995). Jigsaw is the instructional usage of small groups in which learners work together to increase their learning Johnson (1991). Aronson invented Jigsaw as a group educational learning process based on the affirming that students learn better when they are together.

Jigsaw is a form of cooperative learning in which each learner in each group is appointed to do a different and a certain task of learning after that all learners from different groups who have the same task are gathered together forming (expert groups)in which they communicate, negotiate and discuss together about their same task to master this task finally each learner come back to his original group(home group) as he/she can teach his task or material to the other learners of his home group(Deutsch, 1949; Johnson & Johnson, 2005).

Jigsaw is teaching strategy that demands all learners in all groups who have various abilities to work tighter as one team to achieve the group’s mission as learners in groups are considered to be contributors of knowledge. The best number of learners according to Slavin’s experimental result is 4-6 learners as it was better than a group which has 2-4 learners, as It is a noticeable way to learn and master the material and the tasks efficiently. But the most important thing is that jigsaw encourages engagement, cooperation, empathy and listening by giving all students and each learner of the group a vital role to act and play in the learning process. All members of the group must work together as one team to achieve goals, each member depends on others. In jigsaw no member can achieve success without the other members and unless every member works together as one team and one part (Aronson, 1978).

Borich (2004) contended that jigsaw heightens interest among group members because the only way other team members can learn about the topics to which they were not assigned is to listen to the teammate who received that assignment. After all the experts make their presentation to the team, attempting to teach the group what they learned from their expert group, give individual quizzes to assess how much they have learned. According to Herreid (2000) and Apple (2006) Jigsaw technique has several strengths. The chief one is that the students know that they have to become experts on their topic because no one else helps them in the final discussion, It is only them, If they do not give the information they are at fault and everyone knows that.

Recently many researcher have used Jigsaw to improve all language four skills as:SalahEldin(2009);Wulandria(2009);Ismael(2011);Kardeleska(2012);listeria(2017);Nikhaho(2013)keshta(2015);Liao(2015);Juwita(2015);Hidayat(2015);Marline( 2016); Gamel( 2016); Bolokabas(2016);Sukiruin(2016);Tayeb(2016);Orhan (2017) and Ameriatrini (2017) they also recommend using the strategy .

Jigsaw is different form usual strategies as it is known for everyone that the normal atmosphere inside any class room can be described that each student works individually and try to compete against his/her classmates to get higher grade. Meanwhile the teacher stands in front of his/her students and asks many questions waiting the students to raise their hands up to get the permission to answer the question. Most often, ten to fifteen children rise up their hands, leaving their chairs and stretching their hands as high as they are going to touch the sky trying to attract their teacher’s attention.

On the other hand several other learners try to be hidden and sit quietly and their eyes averted hoping that their teacher doesn’t ask them to answer the question, the common reaction of the teacher is to ask one of the eager students to answer the question when the selected student gives the right answer, the teacher smiles, nods approvingly, and ask the next question leaving many other students who know the answer and tried to catch the teacher’s attention but they could not very disappointed In the meantime, the students who didn’t know the answer are very happy as they managed to escape and not being humiliated this time.

Thus by using jigsaw students not only have a shared responsibility to the group setting, students also gain the benefit of learning from those different from themselves. While individual students could be required to do the entirety of a project on their own, the fact that they have the opportunity to listen to the perspectives of others enhances the quality of their education. Jigsaw requires students to listen and learn, and the group is rewarded when each individual contributes their skills and knowledge to the whole. Not only is learning improved, but tolerance and understanding is as well.

Steps of Jigsaw strategy in the Classroom

Step One

The teacher divides the selected lesson into 4-6 parts, according to the nature of each lesson (grammar, reading or story).

Step Two

The teacher divides learners into 4 – 6-persons according to the parts of the selected lesson to form the original group ‘home group’ the groups should be diversified in terms of capacity, levels etc.

Step Three

The teacher assigns one of the learners from each group as the leader of the group, this leader should be the most mature student in each group to organize the group and assigns another student as timekeeper to make sure that the mission ends on time.

Step Four

The teacher assigns each learner to learn one part of the select lesson, the teacher has to be certain that students have direct access only to their own part of the selected lesson.

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Cite this page

How to Improve English Speaking Skills?. (2021, Aug 23). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/how-to-improve-english-speaking-skills-essay

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