Ziaulhaq Islamization Policies and Society
Ziaulhaq Islamization Policies and Society
Essence of Zia period was islamization which brought drastic changes in the life of women, religious disparity , sectarianism, upcoming of terrorism parties with the mask of jihadi, refugee problem and increase use of drugs as showed in the film khamosh pani and articles. Zia president of Pakistan from august 1978-august 1988 was a dictator for initial period of his tenure. He came after Zulifiqar Bhutto: considered as liberal politician. Ziaulhaq’s ideology was different to one who preceded him.
First thing Zia did was changing laws in coherence of sharia the Islamic law. According to Zia: ‘Pakistan is like Israel, an ideological state. Take out Judaism from Israel and it will collapse like a house of cards. Take Islam out of Pakistan and make it a secular, it would collapse’. (Tariq Ali 2002:156) This statement of Zia shows how important was religion to him. He passed several ordinances in same context and linked his every activity with it. as he used it his basic tool for governance.
He imposed zakat and ushr act 1980 which made obligation on everyone coming into sahib e nisab bracket to put 10% of their income in the banks so zakat could be taken out of their incomes and brought many people to tax bracket. This act widened the gap between shiahs and Sunnis as this act was incoherence with Sunni law of tax not shiahs. it brought the divisions among them and Shiah party came forward and protested for their manifesto with backing of Iran government.
Establishment of federal sharia court was another step in his islamisation policy in which anyone could challenge any law and prove it according to Islamic teachings which brought many changes in laws. But on the darker aspect many groups started using it for their interests, as Zia Islam was more inclined towards Sunni Islam so shiah had issues on the laws which both sect differ upon on their implementations but because of Iran’s government support with shiah, Zia exempted shiah from laws which were against their believes but it deepened the enmity between them which led to later loodshed. it also led to two parallel law order in later world as peoples mentality was mould that way.
Another major change in education trend off shooted because of Zia policy of setting up madaris but this time purpose of them was changed it was not to bring ulemas and teach Islamic teachings. These madaris were more concerned about giving sectarian teaching and creating jihadi for afghan war. Heavy donations came and were invested on them with preference given to Sunni institutions. Nowadays these madaris act as terrorist organizations linkage center as lal masjid was alleged.
These all acts gave rose to different sectarian extremism in the form of lashkar-e- jhangvi (Sunni representative) and tehreek-e- jafria Pakistan (shiah representative). who are still reason of bloodshed of each other and bring Pakistan on frontline of terrorists country. Moreover, step taken by Zia under the title of Islam was letting Americans give people training to fight against Russians in Afghanistan by taking aid from America and based its army budget on that aid and handicapped army for coming years to come.
This was same as selling sovergnity to united states and become their allies to safeguard their interest and become dependent on their aid . All this he did under the banner of jihad. In addition to this added fuel to fire was when people like Osama bin laden took training and made their terrorist party and did attacks Pakistan came on social media as head of terrorism. Different sectarian troops also took training under the name of jihad and spread violence by killing each other’s major representatives but also their supporters.
Which till now exists . incidents like …….. are key examples to it. The Afghan war that spanned the decade between 1979 and 1989 not only flooded Pakistan with weapons and drugs, but also embedded militancy in the country’s Islamism. The Afghan war spawned several militant Islamist groups with international connections; according to one estimate over 25,000 volunteers from thirty countries were trained in Pakistan and fought in Afghanistan’ (Ahmad Rashid 1996:161) Above paragraph clearly show impacts of afghan war and the militant training and refugee problem and it’s after affects to the society which led Pakistan to fall in deep pit of terrorism, crime, drugs and life full of threats.
It took away peaceful environment. Furthermore, women wing was another major victim of these policies as it deprived them of many basic rights they had . In the name of Islam they were asked to be in their homes and not get equal representation as men. Hudood ordinance was fabricated and exploited more in this era specially by blurring the line between rape and adultery.
For which till now NGOs World Bank Asian development bank are working to bring women status back in different backward areas such as Khyber pakhtukhwan. This resulted in fall in GDP of Pakistan as women labor participation rate fell. Women were not given due respect polygamy was even justified in that era. As silent water shows son was obedient to mother but after spread of radical Islam which was not according to Islamic teachings even and relating him to jihad he was disrespectful to her.
Women were given the status of secondary in the society. Hijab was made compulsory for women. All the politicians brought Islamic teachings and rules in their own way but after Zia period terrorism, sectarianism and security dilemma rose which worsen the condition of country and disturbed society in terms of ideological disturbance, socio economic problems and security issues both internal and external. Pakistan got destabilized as pessimism spread among Pakistanis.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 28 September 2016
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