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A. An ulcer starts by eroding the mucosa of the G.I. tract wall. What functions of digestion and/or reabsorption might be lost if this layer is no longer functional? What functions will be compromised if the ulcer eats through the sub mucosa and then the muscularis?
a. Absorption would not happen correctly some of the ingested and secreted may seep out of the lumen. This also could create a pathway of entry for pathogens if the ulcer ate through to the muscularis mucosa. You may lose some control of defacation.
B. If Zach has a peptic ulcer affecting his stomach or duodenum, which components of the peritoneum will be affected
a. If the ulcer eats a hole into the wall of the stomach, bacteria and partially digested food can spill through h the opening into the peritoneum causing severe inflammation of the abdominal cavity and wall.
C. How can Zach’s stomach contribute to the formation of ulcers in other parts of the G.I. tract? Which cells are direct participants in formation, and how do they contribute to lesions in the G.I. tract wall?
a. Zach’s stomach contributes to the formation of ulcers by the acids needed to breakdown food when they are excessive. Parietal cells (secrete HCI) and gastric glands (acetylcholine) are directly related to the formation of ulcers.
D. Why does Zach’s G.I. tract need the substance that contributes to the formation of ulcers? How is this substance secreted by cells within the gastric pits?
a. Zach’s G.I. tract needs the substance to assist in the breakdown of food and for absorption. Epithelial cells extend into the lamina where they form secretory folds called gastric glands. Several of these glands open into the
gastric pits and secretions from these glands flow into the pits.
E. If Zach’s only normal digestive enzymes from his mouth, what substance will he be able to ingest?
a. Starch and dietary triglycerides (enzyme secreted by lingual glands in tongue but not active until the bolus reaches the stomach.
F. What do you think the ultimate fate of Zach’s pancreas would be if the hepatopancreatic ampulla continued to be blocked? What do you think would happen to the liver and then eventually the rest of Zach’s body?
a. I think that Zach’s pancreas will not be able to function correctly because of the excess secretions. Because there is a blockage the secretions will continue to build causing further damage and inflammation. He will end up with extrahephatic jaundice a=because of the blockage and he will continue to be malnourished and lose weight.