Your idea of a happy life Essay
Your idea of a happy life
1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100) (a) Social Impact of Black Money
(b) Women Combat Forces
(c) Internet as Virtual Library
(d) Fashion Boom in India
(e) Are we Aggressive and Rude People?
2. Read the passage carefully and write your answers to the following questions in clear, correct and concise language (5 x 15 = 75) There is no reason to believe that there are fundamental differences between the East and the West. Human beings are everywhere human and hold the same deepest values. The differences which are, no doubt, significant, are related to external, temporary social conditions and are alterable with them. East and West are relative terms. They are geographical expressions and not cultural types. The differences among countries like China, Japan and India are quite as significant as those among European or American countries. Specific cultural patterns with distinctive beliefs and habits developed in different regions in relative isolation from one another.
There were periods when China and India were pre-eminent in cultural affairs, others when Western nations became dominant. For the last four centuries Western nations aided by scientific development have dominated the East. The world has now reached a state of inter-communication. All societies are fast becoming industrialized and new sets of values are springing up. We are called upon to participate in the painful birth of a new civilization. If we are to live together in peace we must develop international cooperation and understanding. It is for the political leaders to determine the practical steps by which the sources of power and communication now available to us can be used for closer cooperation and friendliness among the people of the world. No political understanding can be made permanent without understanding at the cultural level. Apart from its intrinsic importance, such understanding contributes to the enrichment of human experience.
Facile generalizations are made by philosophers of history which are highly misleading. Hegel in his Lectures on the philosophy of History says that ‘Persia is the land of light; Greece the land of grace; India the land of dream; Rome the land of Empire,’ (a) What does the passage say about cultural differences in different regions? (b) What comments does the author make about the similarities and dissimilarities between the East and the West? (c) What, according to the passage, is the role of communication in building up a new civilization? (d) How will cultural understanding at the international level benefit human societies? (e) Why does the author call the statements of Hegel ‘facile generalization’? 3. Make a precis of the following passage keeping the length within the limits of 230-240 words. It is not necessary to suggest a title. Failure to write within the word limit may result in deduction of marks. The precis must be written on the separate precis sheets provided for the purpose that must then be securely fastened inside the answer book. Clearly state the number of words in the precis at the end. (75)
We all show our feelings on issues by the way we look and react. This has been referred to as body language. We tend to lean forward, hand on chin when we are interested, or turn away when disinterested. Our hands and arms can indicate we are open to what is being said by being relaxed, or show that we are not by being clenched or crossed. We are, therefore, making body pictures of what we feel and think all the time. Indeed people who are taking to us can often get as much information from our body posture as from what we say of how we say it. We might calmly but show we are anxious by moving from foot to foot or by blushing. It is hard to control one’s behavioural reactions, for it is more of a stimulus response reaction than the words we use.
Nevertheless through training it is feasible to portray the image you want to others. With the advent of television as a major political medium there is a lot of effort going into grooming representatives of organizations and particularly chief executives to control their gestures and gesticulations. All this may sound as if you need to be a good actor in order to be successful at conversation control. The answer is, in one sense you do. There is no use in saying one thing and doing another. The actual visual behaviour of shaking your head, for example while saying yes will deafen the words. Those who are effective at conversation control act in a congruent way. Their behaviour matches their words. You can see they mean what they say.
They present an authentic picture because their visuals match their verbals. With practice it is possible to improve performance in conversation without adding any more words. The improvement can come because you improve your visual gestures and gesticulations. For example, you can encourage another person by smiling when he/she says something that pleases you. Indeed the smile is a very powerful gesture. It can switch people ‘on and off’ if done at the appropriate time.
Psychologists refer to the laws of conditioning and reinforcement. To be skilled in conversation control you need to know and apply these laws. Conditioning means having an effect on someone’s behaviour by introducing a condition that either encourages or discourages that behaviour. For example, we have all been conditioned to stop when we see a red light at a traffic intersection, and to proceed if we see a green light. People can be conditioned in conversation by such visual cues. For example if you want someone to continue talking, smile and nod at regular intervals. The smile sets up the green light permission as a condition for the other person to speak.
The nod reinforces what is being said and gives the unspoken permission to continue. People are very sensitive to such permission cues and clues. If you stop smiling and head nodding, they will usually stop and you can then contribute. Likewise you can influence the attention of people with whom you are talking by the way you use your eyes and hands, particularly when you are addressing a group. To exercise control it is important to make eye contact with one or more people. If it is a group, move your eye contact from time to time so that each person is being conditioned to the fact that it could be their turn next for you to speak to them.
Body language and the gestures and gesticulations you make are key aspects of conversation control. Many books have been written on the subject of how our body very often tells others what we are thinking before we have spoken. The visual clues get through much more quickly than the verbal ones. Also use your hands to emphasize a point or get them to direct the listener’s gaze where you want it to concentrate. The pointed finger or the open palm tells the story. Our task is to line up what we say with what we do and vice versa, if you do clench your fist and are angry, then your words should reflect this. If you are relaxed, happy and smiling, they say no. (words: 705) 4. (a) Rewrite the following sentences after making necessary correction of errors: (10) (i) Neither percept nor dscipline are so forceful as example. (ii) Do you know if there is a house for letting in the neighbourhood. (iii) Who you said was coming to see me in the morning?
(iv) He was finding it increasingly difficult to mike his two ends meet. (v) The poor people of the village buy neither vegetables nor grow them, (vi) On entering the hail, the humber of visitors surprised me (vii) The short story should not exceed more than two hundred words. (viii) Before giving the mixture to the child shake it thoroughly. (ix) Nothing has or could be more tragic than his death.
(x) The reason that the students these days are so undisciplined is that they do not get any guidance from their parents.
(b) Fill in the blanks with appropriate preposition/particle and rewrite the completed sentences: (5) (i) I told him that he could not catch a big fish __________ a small rod. (ii) He was taken __________ task for shortage in cash balance. (iii) The father pulled ___________ his son for his extravagant habits. (iv) He is so clever, it is difficult to see __________ his tricks. (v) I have been invited by my friend __________ tea.
(c) Choose the appropriate verb form to fill in the blanks and rewrite the sentences: (5) (i) The efficiency of a plant ________ by the load it can take. (A) knows (B) is known
(C) has been known (D) has known
(ii) Everyday last week my aunt _______ a plate.
(A) breaks (B) was broken
(C) broke (D) has broken
(iii) If I _________ one more question, I would have passed. (A) had answered (B) would have answered
(C) would answer (D) has broken
(iv) He promised _______________ me a post in his department. (A) to have given (B) having given
(C) have given (D) to give
(v) Please don’t ______________ when you go out.
(A) leave opening the door (B) leave the door open
(C) Leave the door opened (D) leave open the door
(d) Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech: (5) (i) He said, “I will not approve of such a behaviour in future.” (ii) He said on the telephone, “We kept on doing our work till late night.” (iii) She said, “As your mother is ill, you must go home at once.” (iv) Ram said to Sita, “Do you intend to come with me to the forest?” (v) The child said to the Sherpa, “Why didn’t you choose to climb to the Moon?” 5. (a) Fill in the blank with an appropriate derivative of the word given within brackets & rewrite the sentences: (10) For example: It has been raining (continue) continuously for two days. (i) She had few rights but all the (responsible) _______ of her work. (ii) Women chose not to vote (machine) ____________ at the bidding of their men folk. (iii) In South Africa, certain areas are (exclude) __________ meant for white people. (iv) The Pathans of the Frontier are (descend) __________ of Genghis Khan. (v) The court ordered him a heavy fine and (prison) ____________ of 3 years. (vi) India lodged a complaint with Pakistan for (courage) ________ terrorism in Kashmir. (vii) Candidates with Graduate degrees in (Human) _________and Arts prefer office jobs. (viii) Despite ne call for ceasefire, the war continued (abate) __________. (ix) A creative person is known for his (source) ___________ and flexibility. (x) The police could not control the situation as the protesters (number) _________ them manifold. (b) Make sentences using the following words as directed so as to bring out the meaning: 10 (i) Pitch (as noun and verb)
(ii) Mirror (as noun and verb)
(iii) Humble (as adjective and verb)
(iv) In (as adverb and preposition)
(c) Use the following phrases/idioms in sentences so as to bring out the meaning: (5) (i) bell the cat
(ii) thank one’s stars
(iii) be on tenterhooks
(iv) true to one’s salt colours
(v) come ant with flying