The study of Neville looks in the way of addressing academic literacy within the University level. He highlighted several important factors that make such feat difficult for students to achieve. “In this paper I describe examples of students’ difficulties in developing academic literacy, and show how these difficulties relate not only to students’ own developing understanding of academic Discourse but also to their awareness of themselves as apprentices of it. ” (Neville, 1997, p. 40) It is through this that the author mentioned the factors of truly understanding the nature of reading and writing among students that impedes such process.
“For many students, difficulties with academic literacy most immediately concern the actual process of reading or writing rather than what is finally produced. ” (Neville, 1997, p. 40) It is through these issues that both the content and final product outputs are compromised. It is through this that he highlights the different facets both in reading and writing that seems to be problematic. With this, he interpreted the understanding of academic culture as a means of addressing such deficiency in writing skills.
“Academic culture is concerned with the development and communication of knowledge, and academic writing has evolved to meet the needs of culture. ” (Neville, 1997, p. 41) On the other hand, in relation with reading, the author argued that there needs to be better insights on how reading should be among students. “They must themselves become academic readers, and so treat reading not as mere preparation for writing – productive, but passive and safe – but critical and active process itself. ” (Neville, 1997, p. 41)
In the end, Neville argued that students – if such actions continue to be present within the educational system, may experience difficulties coping with these standards. “It is time for academic literacy, literacy at the tertiary level, to take a legitimate place on the political and educational agenda. ” (Neville, 1997, p. 49) Reference: Burke, D. J. (1995) ‘Connecting Content and Motivation: Education’s Missing Link’ in Peabody Journal of Education. 70 no. 2 Retrieved March 24, 2008. pp. 66-81 Establishing the need for educational motivation within the content of teaching is what Burke emphasizes in the article.
He sees the foundation of learning to be linking and finding the gap between content within the curriculum and motivation for both students and teachers. After which he pointed out the problem concerning the presumption that content and motivation should be treated separately. “Unfortunately for students and teachers, perhaps equally so for learning, until separate and unequal treatment of the content-motivation relationship is replaced by their colligation, academic achievement should not be expected to rise significantly” (Burke, 1995, p. 70)
After such analysis and explanation of the problem, he then pursues the importance of motivation in educational institutions. “Motivation is always in ‘potential form’ until it impels or ignites activity. ” (Burke, 1995, p. 70) He highlights the importance of putting motivation hand-in-hand with content so as to create a foundation of a deeper understanding of the curriculum imparted to students. Through this, Burke dwells into the issue of motivation by dwelling on its relevance to psychology particularly among students.
“The successful teacher, in order to facilitate the connection between motivation and content, will be better-served by an outward sensitivity to psychological factors including learner need identification, be it social, physical, emotional, or intellectual. ” (Burke, 1995, p. 70) With this, the article pointed out the responsibility of the educator to formally create mechanisms and practices that will promote and uplift motivation among students. This can be done by creating facilitation techniques and skills that will test and create an environment for motivation.
“A variety of learning activities, specific content objectives, and wide-ranging instructional techniques should be designed for every learning experience. ” (Burke, 1995, p. 70) Reference: Bringle, R. G. and Hatcher, J. A. (1996) ‘Implementing Service Learning in Higher Education’ in The Journal of Higher Education. 67 no. 2. Ohio State University Press. pp. 221-239. Incorporating service learning within the realm of higher education is the main argument proposed by both Bringle and Hatcher.
They emphasized its relative importance not only to the social development of students. But on the other hand, it seeks to promote a holistic experience to educators and students. “We view service learning as credit-bearing educational experience in which students participate in an organized service activity that meets identified community needs and reflect on the service activity in such a way as to gain further understanding of course content, a broader appreciation of the discipline, and an enhanced sense of civic responsibility. ” (Bringle and Hatcher, 1996, p. 222)
Learning for them, must be understood not only as a activity and action that revolves around the confinement of the classroom, but also on other facets. With this, the article provided methods and practices that can create service learning within the branch of higher education. Both authors provided a model (CAPSL) that seeks to address the initial program on hand. They proposed different schemes starting from the initial planning stage towards the completion of the overall program. It is through this that they adhere the relative importance of universities.
“The university, as an institution, can be both the means of and the object of data collection that monitors program development, evaluates institutional outcomes, and publishes the results of this research in professional journals. ” (Bringle and Hatcher, 1996, p. 227) By creating a collaborative effort for all actors within the academe and educational sector, the program and dynamics can itself create awareness, practice and mechanism for change. “The CAPSL provides a heuristic for guiding the development of a service learning programs in higher education.
” (Bringle and Hatcher, 1996, p. 236)
Bringle, R. G. and Hatcher, J. A. (1996) ‘Implementing Service Learning in Higher Education’ in The Journal of Higher Education. 67 no. 2. Ohio State University Press. pp. 221-239. Burke, D. J. (1995) ‘Connecting Content and Motivation: Education’s Missing Link’ in Peabody Journal of Education. 70 no. 2 Retrieved March 24, 2008. pp. 66-81 Nevile, M. (1996) ‘Literacy culture shock: Developing academic literacy at University in Copyright Agency Limited. 19 no. 1 Retrieved March 24, 2008. pp. 38-51