According to Worrall certain methods of crime control do have an effect on crime while others may not. Using the literature for support, describe the effectiveness of each of the following methods. A- Directed Patrol for drugs and guns B- Deferred sentencing for drug offenders C- Chemical castration for sex offenders D- Student behavior modification program E- Big brother and big sister programs
The United States of America has a crime problem. In response to it, we spend billions of dollars annually on everything from prison construction, police salaries, and count house operations to home security systems, gated communities and self-defense course. Now days, you cannot even turn the television to the evening news without being witness to the violence and destruction that results from criminal activity around the city and also the world. As Americans, we long for safe neighborhoods, free from violence and victimization. The term control connotes a reactive approach to the crime problem in America.
It suggests that crime is inevitable and that all we can hope for is that it does not get worse. Some people prefer the term prevention because it carries connotations of a proactive approach that seeks to stop crime before it can occur. Within the contents of the essay, I will be discussing the different methods of crime control and explaining weather or not it was effective and if o the degree of effectiveness.
Directed patrol is, as the term states, patrol with direction. Directed patrol involves concentrating the police presence in areas where certain crimes are a significant problem. Hot spots” and “Hot times” are two terms that are used in conjunction with directed patrol. Hot spots are defined as concentrated areas of significant criminal activity, for example, a street corner that maybe well known for its drug selling or prostitution traffic. Those times of day when crime is high, for example, Friday or Saturday nights is considered hot times. There are other terms that are associated with directed patrol, which include crime peaks, saturation patrols, and focused patrol.
Crime peaks are the times of days when the frequency of certain crimes increases. Saturation patrols occur when several police offers flood a certain area in efforts to catch criminals and possibly deter would- be offenders. Focused patrol is a term that maybe used interchangeable with directed patrol, because it refers to the fact that police focus their efforts on certain problems, locations, and or times. To help the efforts and focus of directed patrol, the National Institute of Justice initiated the Drug Market Analysis (DMA) program in 1989.
The program was designed to develop strategies that could be used to address street-level drug crime and effectively target the areas that were plagued by drug activity, and also it was intended to help researchers determine what policing strategies prove effective for combating drug problems. In one of the studies hosted by DMA, in Jersey City, New Jersey, reported a significant reduction in disorder-related emergency calls for service. They used computer mapping technology to identified fifty-six drug hot spots.
The officers took these hot spots and reacted with different types of crackdowns which resulted in a significant reduction in disorder-related emergency calls for service. One of the major downfalls when concerning drug hotspots is that the effects of these patrols can be very short lived. “There is remarkable consensus in the literature that directed patrol can reduce certain types of criminal activity. The most convincing evidence comes from studies of directed patrol effect on gun violence and drug crime.
Specifically, researches on gun violence from Kansas City and on drug problems in Jersey City suggest that directed patrol is worth pursuing. It is not a panacea, however. There appear to be no studies suggesting that directed patrol has outcomes that are completely intended. ” (Worrall, 2008) Deferred sentence refers to a postponed or delayed sentence in a criminal matter. In a deferred sentence, the court gives a defendant an opportunity to complete a probationary period before sentencing.
If the defendant successfully completes probation (usually not longer than 2 years), at the conclusion of the probationary period the court will review the defendant’s file and may dismiss the charges against him/her. If, however, the defendant does not follow all of the terms and conditions of probation the court may enter the conviction and sentence the defendant accordingly. Depending on the jurisdiction, a person may or may not have a permanent record of the crime on their criminal record after a successful completion of the probationary period and subsequent dismissal of the charges.
Columbia University’s evaluation of Brooklyn’s DTAP (Drug Treatment Alternative to Prison) program is one of the most encouraging evaluations of criminal justice policy in recent years, states that deferred sentencing, coupled with adequate treatment, appears to have a positive effect on drug offenders. ” (Worrall, 2008) One method of dealing with sex offenders, that recently came about is chemical castration. Those who are in support of the movement, often refers to the case of Jeffrey Morse.
His request was denied on the bases that “trading body parts for a lesser sentence” would create a dangerous precedent. According to a study, “an effective dose of the drug results in an almost total loss of genital function; the penis is unable to become erect, semen is not produced and orgasm does not occur” (Carpenter, 1998) Some evidence show that castration for certain sex offenders is an effective crime control policy, but it also must be heavily weighted against the side effects of chemical castration.
In behavior modification programs, contains a significant curricular component. They follow a more or less ordered lesson or lecture plan. They reach out to seek to modify inappropriate behavior through a system of punishments and rewards. Behavior modification programs are all analyzed at three levels, the classroom, groups, and individually but they all share a common goal which is changing the behavior of an individual student. Behavior modification appears to be quite effective, especially when it is used to target at-risk individuals such as disruptive students.
Such intervention, though diverse in their focus and methods appear to reduce truancy and other types of inappropriate-thought noncriminal-behaviors. Unfortunately, not many studies in the area have used crime as an outcome. The evidence of those that have, however, suggested that behavior modification can have important crime prevention benefits. (Worrall, 2008) For the situation at hand, juvenile crime prevention consists of not-so-harsh methods of dealing with crimes committed by juveniles. They attempt to prevent or discourage juveniles from violating or breaking the law before they do so.
For more than 100 years, Big Brothers Big Sisters has operated under the belief that inherent in every child is the ability to succeed and thrive in life. As the nation’s largest donor and volunteer supported mentoring network, Big Brothers Big Sisters makes meaningful, monitored matches between adult volunteers (“Bigs”) and children (“Littles”), ages 6 through 18, in communities across the country. We develop positive relationships that have a direct and lasting effect on the lives of young people.
The big brother big sister program mission is to provide children facing adversity with strong and enduring, professionally supported one-to-one relationships that change their lives for the better, forever. They provide accountability by partnering with parents/guardians, volunteers and others in the community we are accountable for each child in our program and they strive to achieve Higher aspirations, greater confidence, and better relationships; Avoidance of risky behaviors; Educational success. National research has shown that positive relationships between Littles and their Bigs have a direct and measurable impact on children’s lives.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 29 September 2016
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