Worldwide Impacts In Decline Of Monarchs

European colonization of the Americas begun with the discovery of the “new world” by Christopher Columbus in 1492; he was an Italian explorer on a Spanish expedition. European nations; England, France, Netherlands and Spain were the major colonizers in the eastern North America. The European settlers came from a variety of religious and social affiliates they were farmers, adventurers, soldiers, evangelists, slaves and a few from aristocratic hierarchy. The reason for colonization was because the European nations had advanced governmental, military, entrepreneurial and naval capabilities.

The Spanish and Portuguese in particular had already established several colonies during the Reconquista, although the French English and Netherlanders had no previous experience in colonization entrepreneurs gave them a base of investment for their colonial ambition without much help from the government (Gersick, 1991)

The encouraged immigration to the Americas more than any other European nation, this was due to the overpopulation and overbearing poverty facing its citizens. The new world was seen as an opportunity by many young English men and women they came to venture into the tobacco business while others came on a mission to bring Christianity to the natives.

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The availability of large tracts of fertile land in the new world brought about large scale farming of cash crops mainly tobacco and sugar.

A crushing demand for labor broke out due to the ever increasing market for tobacco and sugar. In an effort to supply this demand without incurring overhead costs the establishment of slave trade was came to be. The system of slavery was new to the English who had servants, Africans had a slave system but it was not based on race.

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During the period between 1672-1700 the Royal African company, chattered by the English crown to transport African slaves across the Atlantic, had ferried roughly 350,000 Africans from their homelands.

The growing slave trade had a profound effect on the people of Africa, African merchants and chieftains enjoyed the profits of selling slaves to the Europeans in exchange for spices weaponry textiles alcohol and tobacco. The African communities even conducted raids on each other in order to obtain slaves for trade with the Europeans. The voyage across the Atlantic on the slave ships was extremely difficult and proved fatal for thousands of Africans. Those who reached their destination in America found themselves in hellish slave societies where they were forced into manual labor. An example is the Chesapeake colonies where they would endure a lifetime of harvesting cotton.

There were cases of resistance from the African slaves and some even banded together to form communities. In Jamaica some sects of the African slaves even went back to practicing traditional African adherences.

During the first decades of European Settlement American people were under the control of native people, however, as more Europeans migrated into the new world conflicts arose as the colonizers placed greater demands including that the natives convert to Christianity. These led to skirmishes between the natives and the confederacies who retained control of the land against the invading Europeans.

The influx of European materials also affected the native peoples culture. The Europeans had brought with them glass, beads, copper utensils, clothes and weapons. The natives begun incorporating these items in their daily ways of life, some copper items were fashioned as ornaments flint and steel made it easier to start fires and European clothes seemed better than their traditional garb. The increase of European weaponry also made warfare more lethal changing traditional patterns of authority among the tribes. This gave rise to a shift in power between previously weaker groups such as the Algonquian who dominated the more powerful Iroquois after trading with the French for muskets. The native people would eventually come to use these weapons against the European invaders.

The European settlers not only affected the people but also the environment. The popular demand for the beaver hut in Europe led to the intensive hunt of the beaver to near extinction levels. With the loss of beavers so followed beaver ponds which were water sources to other animals and habitats to some fish. Moreover, Europeans introduced the pig into the new world food chain. The pigs foraged in forests leading to scarcity of food for indigenous wildlife which the natives had previously hunted for sustenance.

The period between 1763 and 1774 was a difficult one for the British empire, although they had just been victorious in their war against the French in the French Indian war, the debt from financing the conflict was great. It seemed an unsolvable for both Great Britain and her colonies but this did not keep them from trying. They tried to mitigate the financial debt by setting tax on tea and other commodities sold to by British companies to the colonies. This lead to boycotts and violent protests by patriot groups such as; the Sons of Liberty. The famous Boston tea party was one of the skirmishes in 1773, a group of patriots boarded British tea ships and dumped tea worth 1$ million into the Boston river. This was the catalyst for the American revolution, when Massachusetts assembly refused to pay for the tea, parliament enacted several laws which led to the closure of the Boston port. These coercive acts were seen as intolerable by many British Americans and colonies leading to the establishment of the Continental Association which shaped resistance against British rule(henderson, 1974)

The American revolution is comparable to the French revolution which was also sparked by the French monarchy trying to cover debt strains incurred from the seven years’ war and American revolution, by imposing heavy taxes on citizens. Following years of bad harvest and deregulation of the grain industry inflamed the people into taking up arms, so too was the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. The Pueblo Revolt was caused by the Spanish disregard for traditional religion and with the onset of a wave of drought and famine coupled with raids by the Apache inflamed the people of Pueblo. The French revolution brought an end to the monarchy rule and would henceforth be an important event having worldwide impacts in decline of monarchs and replacing them with republicans and liberal democracies. (Renhquist, 1975)

The federal government was formed in 1789 at an assembly in New York under the first president George Washington. The ideology that all men are created equal was opposed as many elite revolutionaries couldn’t stand the thought of majority rule. This stemmed from a fear that the majority would seize the property of the minority wealthy and redistribute it.

Women were legally defined as coverture, meaning they had no economic or legal rights independent of their husbands. This meant they could neither vote nor own property. The women among the elite however voiced their indignation to this in an effort to overturn coverture. Racial segregation was further fueled by the revolution as the black slaves sided with the British who promised freedom over their American masters. The blacks were viewed as slaves and the Indians had no place, this meant that but for the whites no other race could vote or have any say in legal matters, neither could they own property. This would later come to change since slavery went against the main ideology in the declaration of independence “all men are created equal”.

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Worldwide Impacts In Decline Of Monarchs. (2022, Jun 05). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/worldwide-impacts-in-decline-of-monarchs-essay

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