What makes studying basic religions a challenge for scholars?
Lack of archaeological evidence/varying interpretations
How do people use magic in ancient religions?
to control nature to either benefit themselves or harm others
The ancient Chinese traditions of heating a tortoise shell and interpreting its cracks is an example of the basic concept of ________.
Basic religious attitudes toward ancestors can be described as _________.
The two primary sources of information about basic religions are archaeology and __________.
Contemporary basic religions
Neolithic societies erected mysterious stone monuments known as __________.
The presence of animism as a religious force in contemporary human life is evidenced by the modern Deep __________ Movement.
Of all the rites of passage used in basic religions, the one given the most attention is the rite of passage from __________ to __________.
A __________ is an act, person, or place to be avoided to prevent the spirit world from releasing harmful consequences.
To the traditional Native American, sickness is caused by __________.
(a foreign object) spirit
Which of the following best describes Native American religions?
What is a medicine bundle?
a source of spiritual power made from animal hides and bones, plants, and minerals
The vision quest is a __________ by which a young person seeks __________.
ritual; a vision from the spirit world
According to Native American belief, the land of the dead is often portrayed as __________.
a diminished plane of earthly existence
__________ have appealed to Native Americans by telling them that they are children of the lost tribes of Israel and that Jesus preached in the Americas after his resurrection.
The __________ blends Christianity and the peyote cult and boasts 225,000 members.
Native American Church
The Dakota (Sioux) believe in a High God called __________.
The __________ is a summer event by which an entire community of Native Americans of the Plains achieves a vision of the spirit world.
The ritual in which a young person is sent into the wilderness alone to seek a vision from the spirit world is known as a __________.
__________ is a religion popular amongst the tribes in the Great Plains that combined elements of traditional Native American religion with Christianity.
During certain rituals, Native Americans smoke tobacco by placing it in a __________.
pipe (occasionally a cigarette rolled from corn husk)
Among the curers of the Acholi of Uganda, the jok and ajwaka are terms for __________.
evil spirits that cause illness; the healer
According to the Yoruba creation story, the High God Olorun __________.
created the world after his sons failed and then withdrew from it
According to traditional African belief, illness, misfortune, and death __________.
are consequences of witchcraft or foul play
According to many African religions, the dead __________.
simply move to the world of the spirits where they can harm or benefit the living
Which of the following best describes the view of African religions with respect to the role of the creator of the world?
Did his work and then retired to a distant place
The __________ are lesser deities that often have special relationships with specific Yoruba villages.
The most common leader/specialist in African religions is the __________.
African belief in __________ is seen by some as compatible with the Christian belief in saints and the Muslim belief in jinn.
Some African religions believe that prophets come in times of crisis to __________.
speak for the gods
Hinduism, Buddhism, and Baha’i were brought to Africa in the 19th century by __________.
immigrants from the Middle East and South Asia
In African religions, the ceremony of naming is followed by showing the child to the __________.
While some African people practice circumcision at birth, most wait until __________.
Which of the following sacred books contains materials to be recited during the sacrifice to the Hindu gods?
__________ was the Aryan god of fire, through whom offerings were presented to the other gods.
Which of the following religions arose from Hinduism?
Buddhism and Jainism
In the Vedas, more hymns are written to __________, who is the personification of __________, than to any other single god.
Indra; thunderbolt, cloud, and rain (ruler of heaven)
The Upanishads teach that all beings are but expressions of __________ and that people’s real problem is __________.
The goal of most Indian religions is __________, which is release from the cycle of death and rebirth.
The Bhagavad Gita, an epic poem, is about __________.
the great battle (between heroes and gods)
The medieval philosopher __________ is known as the developer of the Advaita Vedanta system and a prime opponent of Indian Buddhism.
The caste system __________.
has four castes: Brahmin, Kshatriyas (Warriors), Vaishyas (merchants and commoners), and Shudras (Dalits)
The Law of __________ is mainly a statement of the moral and ethical ideals.
In the Upanishads, __________ is the One Reality.
__________ is the wife of Shiva.
Parvati or Kali
__________ is the god of love, benevolence, and forgiveness.
How many Tirthankaras preceded Mahavira in the founding of Jainism?
Mahavira and the other figures associated with the establishment of Jainism are called Tirthankaras, which means __________.
Mahavira taught that karma is built up as the result of what type of conduct?
activity of any sort
Because of their doctrines of ahisma, Jains are __________.
Which of the following is the title of the Jain scriptures?
Agamas, precepts, Siddhantas, treatises
Because of their emphasis on truthfulness, Jains have a reputation for being __________, and have hence become one of the wealthiest groups in modern India.
Jains believe that the __________ is evil and must be tormented so the __________ can attain release from teh cycle of births.
matter/body (ajiva); soul (jiva)
Jains worship a total of __________ Tirthankaras in their temples.
Jain monks vow to renounce __________ pleasure.
The Jain festival of __________ involves all Jains in living like monks for at least one day.
Today, there are __________ sects of Jainism.
The __________ is the most liberal of Jain sects.
Svetambara (the white-clad)
Siddhartha Guatama’s father protected him from __________ when he was young.
sights of human misery (ugliness and distress)
Tibetan Buddhists believe that when the Dalai Lama dies, he is __________.
reincarnated in his successor (a child)
Buddhism began as an interpretation of what religious system?
The word Nirvana means __________.
“blowing out” (cessation of consciousness)
Adherents of __________ Buddhism use riddles in meditation and value simplicity.
Each of the Four Noble Truths focuses on the problem of __________.
Who was the founder of Buddhism?
Where did Buddha give his first sermon?
Deer Park in the city of Banaras
What is the name for those individuals who achieve Nirvana?
Which of the following is the larger and more liberal sect of Buddhism?
Pure Land Buddhists offer prayers to a cosmic Buddha named __________.
For Theravada Buddhists, one of the most important ways of making merit is to offer food to __________.
Riddles of case studies known as __________ are used by Zen Buddhists to go beyond reason.
According to the Buddha, people are bound to an endless cycle of life and death because of __________.
How has the encounter between Native American religion and Christianity affected Native Americans? Has the encounter been good or bad for the native peoples?
Compare and contrast the African idea of the High God with that of Native American religions. In what ways has this idea of a High God both made Native Americans and Africans open to conversion to Christianity and/or Islam and resistant to it?
Over its long history, Hinduism has demonstrated remarkable religious tolerance and flexibility, even to the point of advocating polytheism, monotheism, and monism all within a single religion. What are the implications of having such a flexible religious system? What are the advantages and disadvantages?
What did the Buddha teach about the soul, the gods, and animal sacrifice? Explain his teachings on these points with his understanding of Nirvana.
Explain the main differences between Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism, and discuss the advantages/disadvantages of each for Buddhism’s missionary expansion.