Working Women’s Wages Essay
Working Women’s Wages
In the prior years, discrimination against women also occurred in terms of wages. The Equal Pay Act was passed into law 1963. Despite this, women were paid about 45 percent less than men in 1970s; about 32 percent less in 1988, but working on the same job. Today, women’s wages “have become an increasingly important component of household income and consumer spending”, however, women are “still being paid less than men in most places and for most jobs” (Kinetz, 2004).
The U. S. Department of Labor – Bureau of Labor Statistics computed the median usual weekly earning of full-time wage and salary workers. Table 3 shows this computation, by occupation and sex, for the 2002 annual averages. Table 3. Median usual weekly earning of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation and sex, 2002 annual averages (Numbers in thousands) Source: Current Population Survey, U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics Women have participated in almost any job that men have traditionally performed.
Then again, in all of the occupations listed in Table 3, not a single occupation did the women had equal wages with men. Notwithstanding this inequality of wages between men and women, it is a fact that women have generally enjoyed increases in their wages through the years. Many studies have concluded that this increase is the effect of the changes in how women are viewed today. As discussed earlier, women of working age in the 1940s to the 1970s were regarded to be merely wives and mothers, and their work space is their home.
With the change of attitude towards women in the late 1970s to date, women have been given the equal opportunity with men to be educated in formal institutions and be career professionals. With this development, the number of women involved in more “complicated” jobs increased, thus more and more women earn bigger salaries. The Women’s Bureau of the U. S. Department of Labor reported that for 2006, 60 percent of American women age 16 years and over were labor force participants — meaning they were working or were looking for work.
This is about 46 percent of the total U. S. labor force. Most of the employed American women were engaged in management, professional, and related occupations, as well as in sales and office occupations. Others were in service occupations, and in production, transportations, and materials moving occupations. Few were in natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations. The Women’s Bureau also reported that last year, 51 percent of all workers in the high-paying management, professional, and related occupations were women.
They have outnumbered men in fields of work such as financial management; human resource management; education administration; medical and health services management; accounting and auditing; budget analysis; property, real estate, and social and community association management; preschool, kindergarten, elementary, middle, and high school teaching; physical therapy; and nursing. Women pharmacists had the highest median weekly earnings in 2006 among women who were full-time wage and salary workers, having median weekly earning of $1,564.
They were followed by chief executives with $1,422; lawyers with $1,333; physicians and surgeons with $1,329; computer and information systems managers with $1,300; computer software engineers with $1,272; physical therapists with $1,086; management analysts with $1,069; medical and health services managers with $1,064; and computer scientist and systems analysts with $1,039. The Bureau of Labor Statistics has prepared a report on the 20 leading occupations of employed women, where the women’s median weekly earnings is about $600.
Table shows the 20 leading occupations of employed women, in annual averages for 2006. Table 4. 20 Leading Occupations of Employed Women, in Annual Averages for 2006 (Employment in thousands) Source: U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Annual Averages 2006 However, despite these facts, the $600 median weekly earnings of women who were full-time wage and salary workers are just 81 percent of the men’s $743.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 18 May 2017
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