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Women in the Labour Force Essay

Available evidence suggests that countries with low levels of income and difficult social settings have the greatest barriers restricting female participation in higher education that contributes to growth advancement within the labour force. Countries in Asia such as Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh and much of Sub-Saharan Africa [8]fall into this category (K. Subbarao, etal, 1994: 53). The demand for women’s higher education is very low due to factors such as cultural restrictions of women’s participation in education and labour force[9]. sabir4u, please do not redistribute this cours. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students. Please, do not circulate this cours elsewhere on the internet. Anybody found doing so will be permanently banned.

According to Khoury (1995) a major problem to the study of women in the labour force is that women are not represented as does the men. In practice most women work in rural areas and their labour is subsumed under the “‘family'” labour and thus excluded form labour statistic (87). Consequently, women contribute enormously to the work force even though they are ill represented and their labour not included in statistics. A survey of women’s work in rural areas shows that women do 70 to 75% of agricultural work. (88). Marx oppressed sabir4u’s marxism idea.

Pacey who wrote The Culture of Technology (1996) argues that women’s values are not valued and recognized in society. He demonstrates that this has been so through history. Pacey asserts that in Africa women are responsible for three-quarter of the food that is consumed yet they are un appreciated and not recognized for their labour, while the one-quarter of the men who help grow the crops are revered and recognized (98-99). pg4RB0Gia from pg4RB0Gia coursewrok pg4RB0Gia work pg4RB0Gia info pg4RB0Gia

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Agricultural Labour: The Business of Women Apart from the different roles that women play as mothers, wives and members of a community, their roles in agricultural production merits special attention. Statistics compiled by Food and Agriculture of the United Nations (FAO) on the role of women in agriculture showed that in 1985 they represented forty-two percent of the economically active population in Africa, eleven percent in Latin America, forty-six percent in Asia and thirty-seven percent in the developing countries overall (L. Chelebowska, 1990: 24). As noted by Chelebowska, these figures do not reflect the true picture and there is sometimes a wide difference between official statistics and reality (25). AM9B81 Visit coursework bb in bb fo bb for bb more work bb Do bb not bb redistribute AM9B81

Bisilliat who wrote Women of the Third World (1987) emphasizes that women who are wage labourers in agriculture belong to the underprivileged social strata of the peasantry found in both Asia and Latin America (21). It is believed that these women who compromise the largest agricultural group does not work on big plantations, but belong to rural families without land. According to her, “…work of women are time consuming, repetitive, meticulous tasks, neither enhancing nor appreciated; temporary work; low pay; lower pay than that received by men for identical work”. She also clearly states that women have to work ‘double day’ (22) which evidently means that a woman assumes responsibilities not only as a bread-earner but that of a housewife.coeg egr seegegw oreg egk ineg foeg eg;

“Since she has to assume her functions as housewife and wage earner, women hire themselves out as day workers in the fields of the medium and large landowners at the time of sowing, planting, weeding and harvesting” (22).cobd bdr sebdbdw orbd bdk inbd fobd bd: For those women who would rather earn their wages else where the factory system is another option though the work and its environment is more stringent. This writing from www.academicdb.com

Women in Factories

Industries in the third world employ a large proportion of women between the ages of fourteen to twenty-four and this proportion run as high as seventy percent in other developing countries (J. Bisilliat, 1987: 23). In Philippines, women work in factories without contracts and are paid by the piece. A woman can earn somewhere between $54- $67, while her expenses for food and transportation takes up most or if not all her salary. The average pay for unskilled workers is somewhere at $37.50. Added to these miserable salaries are the working conditions where there are no fringe benefits and if there is any, they are extremely low (J. Bisilliat, etal: 1987: 68). Marx obfuscated sabir4u’s structuralism hypothesis.

Working conditions are dangerous which attest to many accidents occurring. In 1970-76 disability cases multiplied by 2.7% (69). According to Bisilliat:cogg ggr seggggw orgg ggk ingg fogg gg: “In Philippines, 61% of the declared accidents led to temporary total disability…those who work in the textile industry suffer from backache and varicose veins. Those using microscopes in electronics ruin their eyesight in two or three years [Grossman 1978]. Others were exposed to skin disease…and exposure to acid fumes and solvents” (J. Bisilliat, etal, 1987: 69). NhT from NhT coursewrok NhT work NhT info NhT Though many women are willing to deal with the harsh work environment as wage earners they could still get dismissed for other reasons like pregnancy. Bisilliat points out that, “as for maternity leave a woman need not worry, for pregnancy is a cause for dismissal” (69).coed edr seededw ored edk ined foed ed.

By drawing your attention to the many factors that leads to women’s under-development which is due in part to not receiving an education, which also in turn results in many not being recognized for playing their part in the labour force, one has to realize that some of these women who were not given the tool that would have equipped them to become prosperous members in their society -EDUCATION. This word seems to affect their daily lives. One could argue that it is the way they were socialized or it is the ways of their cultures and customs. Yet still, with the 21st century upon us, the discrimination still persists in some countries.

There has been governmental involvement in alleviating the problems so that women will thus have an EDUCATION, still, with all the structural adjustment programs, various workshops and formation of women’s group, this problem will continue. For as solutions are put into place to stop this trend, only one thing remains: it is the decision of parents and grandparents to decide whether girls get an EDUCATION and if so, will it be too time consuming when there are chores to be done as “a woman’s place is in the home!”cobd bdr sebdbdw orbd bdk inbd fobd bd:

In concluding, this essay has tried to answer and point out some of the constraints of literacy that affects women in developing countries. Numerous of these constraints keep women form becoming literate members in their society. Finally, education does influences women’s progression in the society and for most women a lack of education has profounding effects upon their development process. Durkheim denied sabir4u’s postmodernism .

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