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Wireless Internet promises to be the next disruptive technology, leading to big changes in the lives of the end-users and tremendous economic opportunities for infrastructure providers, operators, terminal producers and content generators. The goals of Ericsson and Telia – they want to gain a major share of this emerging market by providing hardware and services that will delight the end-user.
The deployment of third-generation networks is being questioned more frequently. Strong forces, both commercial and technological, are pushing for other alternatives. Since we started working on this project in January 2001, we’ve noticed a definite winner in the Wireless Internet Space – Wireless local area networks (WLANs).
There are several competing WLAN technologies such as IEEE 802.11b, HomeRF and Bluetooth. At this point, IEEE 802.11b is the strongest alternative, with a clear upgrade path to IEEE 802.11a. Today, WLANs can provide data connectivity at up to 11 Mb/sec per access point (IEEE 802.11b); and within 1 to 3 years, they will provide access speeds of up to 54 Mb/sec (IEEE 802.
11a and HiperLAN/2) and looking beyond 3 years, this data rate is expected to reach 100 Mb/sec. In contrast to WAP, WLAN does not require any new content creation or application development to attract users. Everyone is looking for the killer wireless application – well, the killer app might very well be the access!
Communication has become wireless. The free airwaves are being beneficially and optimally leveraged to transmit multimedia data including human voice and thereby today cable-free environments are seeing the light. That is, all the clutter and chaos due to the enormous amount of pof intertwined wires and cables for networking has become a thing of the past.
Over the past several years, there have been many versions of wireless devices that have emerged throughout the years. Short, medium and long-range wireless communication technologies have been emerging out of worldwide research labs. New concepts of handheld and user-friendly devices are designed, developed and marketed across the world. Sales executives and industry professionals to embrace wireless capability to be in touch with their clients, customers and stakeholders. People too with an enhanced understanding of the indispensability of wireless connectivity invest in handsets to interact with their close ones. Ultimately a wireless environment is easy to visualize newer and nimbler applications. However, there are a host of challenges to be surmounted by research teams. In this paper, we have highlighted the following critical issues for Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi mesh and WiMAX technologies. This paper specifically discusses about the below mentioned in detail. (1) The configuration details of Wi-Fi, Mesh, WiMAX and mobile WiMAX. (2) Benefits and usage patterns of these systems, (3)SWOT analysis for each of these standards in order to enable users to choose the best as per his requirements and preferences, (4)List of wireless mesh solution providers.
Model Rule of Professional Conduct 1.6 defines the confidential nature of the information within a client-lawyer relationship. Rule 1.6(a) states: “A lawyer shall not reveal information relating to the representation of a client unless the client gives informed consent or the disclosure is impliedly authorized in order to carry out the representation or the disclosure is permitted by paragraph (b).” Model R. Prof. Conduct 1.6(a). Paragraph (b) provides exceptions to paragraph (a) that are not relevant here. See id. at (b). From a practical perspective, attorneys must use, and are not prohibited from doing so, forms of communication beyond in-person meetings in order to carry out effectively a client’s representation. These include, at a minimum, U.S. mail or other mail services and the telephone. While one might imagine a country lawyer practicing this way, modern realities find attorneys using electronic mail with confidential attachments, much of which mail is unencrypted and/or sent via cloud-based services such as Google Apps for Business; faxes; and Web-based technologies such as Skype for conference calls and two-way communication. This goes directly to the attorney’s duty of competence. The standards of a lawyer’s duty of competence are set forth in comments 16 and 17 to Model Rule 1.6. Comment 16 states that “[a] lawyer must act competently to safeguard information relating to the representation of a client against inadvertent or unauthorized disclosure by the lawyer or other persons who are participating in the representation of the client or who are subject to the lawyer’s supervision.” Id. at CMT. 16. Comment 17 discusses the transmission of communication and the “reasonable precautions to prevent the information from coming into the hands of unintended parties.” Id. at CMT. 17.
Working in reverse, in using customer networks, you are giving up security in two regards: a connection to a network and the security features set may not have a password enabled and no understanding of who has access to this password if there is one. There is no way to know for sure whether this network is genuine or a clone just luring people to connect just for information gathering. There is no understanding as to the VPN services or any other service that can aid in blocking unwanted intrusions and therefore all email and data traffic can not be guaranteed safe. Not to mention stores can query your data based on an agreement you made where the fine print can be very invasive when it comes to privacy. This can allow access to your applications, personal email and even go as far as pictures or messages. The sad fact about this is that stores have NO legal obligation to protect the devices that you connect to their networks for WIFI.
WPA offers improvements to WLAN. WPA uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), which replaces WEP’s 40-bit with a 128-bit key. This prevents others from interjecting themselves and swiping your key. WPA improves enterprises when it comes to 802.1x and its security, particularly in remote authentication. Smaller businesses can use PSK, a Pre-Shared Key, a shared password-based authentication method that relies on an access-point local security policy. PSK is plenty secure for smaller businesses.
The world of enterprise Wi-Fi moves fast, more 802.11ac devices and its successor, 802.11ax, is still one for the future. The next generation involves MU-MIMO, a multi-user multiple-input, multiple-output. This means access points can talk to many people or devices allowing for multi-functional devices. This is an instant process where this use to be handled sequentially.
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