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Windows Server 2008, released in April 2008, is the replacement of the already well-established Windows Server 2003. The engineering alterations in calculating subjects such as the release of Windows Vista and 7 should bespeak that this new operating system could present some major alterations, in comparing to its predecessor.
This study introduces Windows Server 2008 and attempts to place and explicate its new characteristics and functionality betterments. Throughout this paper, those facets will be compared, where possible, with those belonging to Windows Server 2003.
For easiness of reading, the undermentioned nomenclature is used:
Win2K3 – Windows Server 2003
Win2K8 – Windows Server 2008
OS – operating system
OSes – operating systems
The undermentioned subdivisions should supply grounds that Win2K8 introduces some betterments in Active Directory ( AD ) . The facets of running a sphere are covered, every bit good as the visual aspect of the OS, its public presentation, its security, and its serviceability.
The first apparent alterations are the recommended hardware demands, necessary for a successful installing of Win2K8 ( Windows Server, 2007 ) , which are much higher than Win2K3 ‘s demands ( Microsoft Technet, 2005 ) .
The differences are highlighted in the two lists below:
the processor velocity should be 2 GHz ( GHz ) or higher ;
the system should ideally possess 2 Gs ( GB ) of Random Access Memory ( RAM ) , and no more that 4GB ;
the recommendation for the Hard Disk Drive ( HDD ) is 40GB of free infinite ;
the proctor recommended is a super-VGA, with a minimal 800×600 declaration ;
and eventually a DVD-ROM thrust.
the processor velocity should be 550 MHz ( MHz ) or higher ;
the recommended sum of RAM is 265MB ;
the HDD should hold 2 to 3GB of free infinite ;
the recommended proctor is a super-VGA with a minimal 800×600 declaration ;
Win2K3 requires at least a CD-ROM or DVD thrust for installing
and for web installing, a Preboot execution Environment ( PXE ) compliant web card.
The recommended demands listed at the Windows Server site for Win2K8 do non advert the demand for a PXE compliant web adapter for web installing. Installations from distant locations are possible, as documented by Matthews ( 2008 ) , who besides reports that the options to set about a full installing, or a Server Core installing, are available ; the latter installing manner installs a lighter version of the waiter which excludes certain constituents and the user interface ; i.e. all disposal undertaking are performed via the bid prompt.
Davis ( 2007 ) states that the Win2K8 “ expression and feel ” makes the OS really similar to the Windows Vista household of OSes ; this implies that, likewise to Win2K3 ‘s release, which, as illustrated by Minasi et Al. ( 2003 ) , integrated XP engineerings, Microsoft tried to bring forth a networking OS that reflects the tremendous engineering alterations and progresss in today ‘s universe. For those who struggled with Vista ab initio, this may bespeak that the new expression waiter could turn out awkward to set to. An illustration of the Vista types of alterations to the OS is the skip of the Run bid, in the Start bill of fare, which may confound Win2K3 users, who would be accustomed to the handiness of this characteristic ; with Win2K8, the user merely needs to type the name of the needed characteristic in the Search textbox, situated at the underside of the Start bill of fare, and double-click on this characteristic ‘s name, which should look on the left manus side of the bill of fare, in order to run it.
The ground to why Win2K8 is so much like Vista is because it was built utilizing the same development theoretical account, as highlighted by Hassell ( 2008 ) ; i.e. the secure development theoretical account, which intends to assist in bring forthing more security based OSes. This should connote that Win2K8 must be more unafraid than Win2K3 ; this deduction is discussed subsequently in this paper.
Active Directory Domain Services ( AD DS ) is the new name given to what every sphere decision maker has ever known as Active Directory ( AD ) , while utilizing Win2K3. AD DS includes characteristics similar to Win2K3 ‘s and besides introduces new functionalities, as illustrated by ( Price and Price, 2008 ) , whose list includes Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services ( AD LDS ) , Active Directory Federation Services ( AD FS ) , Active Directory Rights Management Services ( AD RMS ) and Active Directory Certificate Services ( AD CS ) .
Schmidt ( 2008 ) briefly high spots AD LDS, which was known as Active Directory Application Mode ( ADAM ) in Win2K3, and besides permits AD to be used for application storage and handiness, without those being wholly dependent on AD. There are no security rules in AD LDS, since those are stored in AD DS.
AD FS permits administrations to supply their employees, and employees from other administrations, a manner to log in to a corporate web site, without making different histories or hive awaying login certificates, for each employee, from each administration that has entree to the web site, harmonizing to Bruzzese ( 2009 ) . With AD FS, companies can hold a trust history which gives them entree to the web site, without the demand for a trust history on their ain waiter.
Harmonizing to Oiaga ( 2010 ) , AD RMS is a new engineering, incorporated into Win2K8, which is based on the security of paperss keeping informations, such as word paperss, web sites or spreadsheets, and permits decision makers to code files, which can merely be decrypted by authorized persons. This is one of the cardinal security characteristics which should be considered by every administration earnestly considers informations protection, as AD RMS can easy be used to maintain sensitive informations from unauthorized viewing audiences. This is non a new characteristic, since Win2K3 besides provided encoding possibilities.
Morimoto et Al. ( 2008 ) explains that with AD CS, which was antecedently known in Win2K3 as Certificate Services, an decision maker can bring forth and pull off all bing certifications required. Besides known as a Certificate Authority ( CA ) , this engineering helps decision makers to verify whether the certifications are valid, guaranting a high degree of security. Certificates are paperss which guarantee the credibleness of a user ‘s individuality.
In Win2K8, it would be expected that a public presentation public-service corporation should be provided, with respects to the heavy work loads imposed on sphere accountants today, due to the fact that administrations are going larger and larger. Therefore, Microsoft offers the Reliability and Performance Monitor ( RPM ) , which enables decision makers to name an AD for public presentation statistics.
RPM is a Microsoft Management Console ( MMC ) snap-in ; Zandri ( 2009 ) explains that RPM can be used to supervise public presentation facets such as processor use, the province of the Hard Disk Drive ( HDD ) , web public presentation and use, and memory province. This public-service corporation seems to be the centralization of the public presentation monitoring tools that were available individually in Win2K3.
Harmonizing to Petri ( 2009 ) , the waiter ‘s public presentation can be analysed with the aid of the Win2K8 tool called Performance Analysis of Logs ( PAL ) , which:
‘is a new and powerful tool that reads in a public presentation proctor counter log ( any known format ) and analyzes it utilizing complex, but known thresholds ( that are provided ) ‘ .
This tool ‘s end product is an HTML papers which highlights some counters of import to public presentation and shows qui vives, sing bing public presentation issues. PAL helps decision makers detect possible jobs with easiness, since all public presentation tools are in one public-service corporation.
Mimoso ( 2008 ) , published an interview with Bill Laing, general director of Microsoft ‘s Windows Server Division, on the SearchSecurity.com web site, in which Laing provinces that:
“ In developing Windows Server 2008, three cardinal facets of security were imperative in accomplishing our end to make our most secure runing system to day of the month ” .
This surely implies that there should be some major security betterments in this version of the OS.
The three key facets mentioned above are Network Access Protection ( NAP ) , Federated Right Management ( FRM ) and Read Merely Domain Controller ( RODC ) , which all participate in supplying administrations with a secure OS, an accessible and safe web, and protection over paperss and informations ; they are all new characteristics.
Melber ( 2009 ) describes how Win2K8 besides lets administrator control security over the services which run in the background. Microsoft has incorporated new characteristics within Group Policies ( GP ) , which gives administrative forces this control.
Specialized Security – Limited Functionality ( SSLF ) environment, harmonizing to Microsoft ‘s security usher for the OS ( 2008 ) , is a baseline which helps construct “ extremely unafraid environments for computing machines running Windows Server 2008 ” . Although SSLF helps fasten up server security, this scene imposes some limitations with respects to user functionalities ; i.e. limitations towards running services, such as Terminal Services, which helps users connect to desktops from distant locations.
Bitlocker is a new security characteristic, which was introduced with Windows Vista, and has been incorporated in Win2K8 ( Techotopia, 2009 ) . This installation enables full-drive encoding and is an ideal security step, to procure informations on laptops and notebooks which are points easy lost or stolen.
Hyper-V is a new public-service corporation introduced in Win2K8, which enables users to utilize virtualisation engineerings, with the aid of Remote Desktop Services, to enable them to run multiple virtualised OSes on the same machine ( Shimonski, 2008 ) ; antecedently, any user want to execute any virtualisation undertaking would hold had to download and put in either Microsoft ‘s Virtual Personal computer or Virtual Server.
With virtualisation assorted systems or computing machines are created and running on one host computing machine. This permits to either trial or physically run a web, while cutting down operating expenses and outgos, since less hardware is needed. However, there is one point to take into consideration ; the host machine must hold adequate resources, such as processors speed, RAM or HDD infinite, to enable the virtualised systems to run swimmingly.
eCOST Software ( 1998-2010 ) studies that the Web Server edition of Win2K8 offers sweetenings and betterments to the Microsoft web platform, which provides more flexibleness and dependability, with the aid of Internet Information Services ( IIS ) 7.0, ASP.NET, Windows Communication Foundation and Windows SharePoint Services, all unified within Win2K3.
This edition of the waiter OS, offers betterments in Web disposal, naming undertakings, developing undertakings, such as Web applications in Active Server Pages and PHP, for illustration, and supplying streaming media
Domain Name System is a networking substructure adopted throughout the IT subject, with respects to interpreting IP addresses into familiar host names ( Savill, 2010 ) . DNS Security Extensions ( DNSSEC ) is a networking sweetening which strengthens the DNS substructure and aid prevents onslaughts on webs. DNSSEC is non a Microsoft merchandise but an extension to the already well-established DNS criterion, which helps in verifying the unity of all informations being transferred.
Windows Server 2008, with its new visual aspect, offers many new characteristics, networking sweetenings and betterments, to administrations utilizing Active Directory, which has been renamed Active Directory Domain Services.
Some of the characteristics, such as Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services, are public-service corporations or facets of the operating system, which existed within Windows Server 2003, and have been renamed, while others are wholly new characteristics, such as Active Directory Rights Management Services.
The Reliability and Performance Monitor helps domain decision makers guarantee that public presentation is non affected by the work load imposed on the operating system, by analyzing public presentation arrows with respects to memory direction, difficult disc thrust use, or even processor velocities and province.
Security has been Microsoft foremost and first precedence during the development of the waiter and this reflects into the security sweetenings of the operating system, which include Network Access Protection, Federated Right Management and Read Merely Domain Controller.
Hyper-V, the new virtualisation engineering within Windows Server 2008, permits administrations to virtualise webs without the demand to utilize other public-service corporations, such as Microsoft ‘s Virtual Personal computer or Virtual Server.
The Microsoft Web platform is more dependable and flexible towards application distribution and web development with Windows Server 2008 Web edition. Diagnostic undertakings, web development and web disposal have been improved with the fusion of Internet Information Services 7.0, ASP.NET, Windows Communication Foundation and Windows SharePoint Services. With DNS Security Extensions, unity of information is assured during all transportations.
In Summary, Windows Server 2008 seems to be a more secure, dependable and flexible operating system than Windows Server 2003, and offers many new characteristics and betterments.
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