Why would these breakthroughs on their own not be necessarily enough to help injured soldiers in the trenches? (Consider each one in turn)
Aseptic surgery: Although it helped prevent infections setting in during operations, they didn’t help with open wounds that were already infected before reaching the operating table. Many soldiers were infected from the souls and dirty uniforms before the operation took place. This wouldn’t necessarily be enough on its own because although it cleared the wounds of bacteria it didn’t stop the pain from the operation, meaning some men died from medical shock.
Development of x-rays: This was an accidental find by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895. However, radiation was over 1000 times higher than it is today, which led to severe burns, leading to infection if not treated correctly.
Blood transfusions/ Blood storage: Blood could not be stored as it clotted as soon as it left the bod. This meant that blood transfusions had to be ‘live’ and the donor had to be there.
This wouldn’t be enough because the donor and recipient had to be connected, this was a very good place for bacteria to enter both patients, leading to infection. Also, the body contains on average 5 liters of blood, if they were to remove too much blood from the donor, they would go into shock and die.
Why was the area around Arras significant in terms of medical treatment?
This was because there were a very large number of casualties (160 000) meaning treatments were frequently being given, allowing doctors to find the correct dosage and practice on how to cure different diseases and illnesses.
What new injuries came about as a result of the second battle of Ypres?
Germans began to use chlorine gas on the western front causing new injuries such as inflicting damage to the eyes, nose, throat and lungs. Prolonged exposure caused death.
Which battle is most likely to have caused the greatest cases of trench foot? Explain why.
I think the third battle of Ypres would be the battle that caused the most cases of trench foot. This is because the British prepared for main attack. They managed to advance 2 miles on their first day. However, it began to rain, and the ground became waterlogged, there were 245 000 British casualties.
How useful is Source A for an enquiry into transport and communication on the Western Front?
Source A is useful as there were several bombings and shells, meaning the terrain near the trenches were very difficult to cross. This caused issue in terms of transport and communication. The area around the trenches had been used as farmland so fertilizer was used which meant there was a lot of bacteria in the soil that could lead to infected wounds, which could then lead to death. If you were injured, you needed to be moved immediately away from the trenches. Stretcher bearers would carry injured soldiers away when their conditions were stable enough. This meant they would have to avoid gunfire and shelling. It was easier to carry out more developed procedures away from the front line.
How useful is this source (source c) for an enquiry into gas attacks on the Western Front?
Source C is very useful for an enquiry because it explains what it feels like: ‘it is the equivalent to drowning, but on dry land; splitting headache; terrific thirst; knife-edging pain in lungs; excessive coughing up of a greenish froth from the stomach’. A very brutal way to die, as explained by Lance Sergeant Elmer Cotton.
What details would you follow up from Source C to find out more about the effects of gas attacks?
1) Which detail would you follow up?
I would probably follow up details on early symptoms and how long it takes for the severe symptoms to impact the body after the gas has been inhaled.
2) What question would you ask?
Post-inhaling the gas, are the symptoms immediate or does the gas have to run in your system before symptoms show?
3) What type of source would you want to answer your questions?
I would like an answer to be in the format of source C.
4) Why might that source help you answer your question?
This source might help because it comes directly from those that experienced the effects through their fellow soldiers and were able to see how quickly the symptoms came visible.
Complete the cloze exercise explaining the work of the FANY.
The first six FANY’s arrived in France on 27th October 1914. However, the British would not make use of them, so they devoted their energies to helping French and Belgian troops.
Finally, in January 1916, the British army decided to allow FANYs to drive ambulances. They became the first women to carry out this role, replacing British Red Cross male ambulance drivers. They were used to transport wounded troops by ambulance in the Calais region. Although there were never more than 450 FANYs in France, they did open the way for other women who were attached to other organizations, such as the Voluntary Aid Detachments (VADs), to participate in the frontline.
FANY did things other than driving ambulances to support the soldiers on the Western Front. They drove supplies such as food and clothes to the frontline. They had a mobile bath unit which provided baths to the soldiers in water heated by the power from the van’s engine. They also set up cinemas to help the morale soldiers.
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