The Reds won the Civil War for many reasons, but some are specifically more important than others. Some factors such as… Geographical advantage Strong leadership Unity and organisation Support Paragraph 1 (Short) (6 mins) The geographical advantage of the Reds helped them with the Civil war because it provided them with military benefits that the Whites did not have. Geographical Factors Reds: Held central area of Western Russia – Moscow + Petrograd = population for conscription Whites: Scattered amongst Russia.
Reds: Controlled large industrial centers > produce war supplies > deliver them efficiently amongst soldiers Whites: Communication difficult, hundreds of miles separated different armies – created disunity How did this help them win? Because they had abundant resources while the Whites did not… Paragraph 2 (Short) (6mins) The Reds won the Civil war partly because of their enemy’s disunity and lack of organisation.
The Reds could therefore exploit the White’s major weaknesses in order to secure a victory.
Unity + Organisation Whites: Some members were liberal and just satisfied with the returning of the Provisional government Whites: The generals distrusted each other > Didn’t communicate with each other about attacks > bases already far apart Reds: Conscription was introduced and Trotsky hand picked loyal soldiers > army increased from 100,000 to 500,000 by August 1918 Reds: January 1920 5 million men enlisted > former Tsarist officers held with blackmail The result?
The Campaigns of Kolchak and Deniken contributed to the Red’s victory (lack of troops, unorganised) Production of weapons – war communism Paragraph 3 (6 mins) Without a clear sense of direction and leadership the Reds would have had difficulty in their success.
Lenin and Trotsky were robust leaders who led the Red’s to their victory. Leadership Trotsky traveled 65,000 miles throughout Russia assisting front line to encourage Red soldiers. Lenin clear and structured leadership Whites: Had multiple leaders who set bad examples by drinking.
Whites: Aided landlords to gain lost land (lost support from peasants) Whites: Once peasants conscripted Brutal discipline = want democracy more The result? : Better army and more support = victory Paragraph 4 (6mins) Another factor that meant the Reds won the Civil war was because of the amount support they gained in Russia. Support Reds: gained support through repression and reform Repression: Cheka, grain requisitioning, Reform: Propaganda, VIK peasant representation of villages in dealings with central government.
Briefly mention former Tsarist commanders (blackmail) Whites: Had foreign aid from France, Japan and USA. Was half hearted and some troops sympathised with Reds. Whites: Peasant soldiers often switched sides, as they were not happy with White’s declaration of returning land back to landlords. The result? : Had committed troops who fought for them, ensuing in a better army. Conclusion (10) To conclude, I think the main reason as to why the Reds won the Civil war was because of their enemy’s disunity and their lack of support.
The White’s became infamous for their terror they brought. Estimated 100,000 – 150,000 Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia were killed in pogroms. Result? Loss of support Reds managed to gain 48,000-experienced Tsarist officers Compare with Whites and their unorganised efforts Effect of good army? Reds: Ensure loyalty of officers and men, political commissars attached to provide ‘political education’. Whites? Less loyalty Disunity? Campaign example Why did the Reds win the Civil War in 1920 Essay Plan.
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