What is the effect of gender and their willingness to go to mediation?

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 4 October 2016

What is the effect of gender and their willingness to go to mediation?

Gender roles have an influence of how people are willing to seek counseling and mediation. Men whose gender roles have been affected negatively, who have gender role conflicts, have negative attitudes towards seeking counseling. This research tends to prove the link between the gender roles and the willingness to go to mediation. Mediation is the processes by which two people who are in conflict use a neutral person to help them come into an agreement. The two people decide the outcome and not the mediator.

Studies of the relation between self-stigma, information disclosure and attitudes towards seeking counseling, show that men who have greater roles conflicts have are likely to have more self-stigma. These men also tend to disclose more information about them which therefore leads to negative attitudes towards seeking counseling and mediation. This means that gender roles conflicts causes high self-stigma and less self-disclosure leading to negative attitudes towards seeking mediation (Pederson & Vogel, 2007).

Many people want to have their own negotiations in the process of a divorce and do not need to be with a lawyer to make the negotiations (Fiske & Hon. Perlman, 2005). The hypothesis of this research is that gender roles conflicts play an important role in people seeking counseling and mediation. However, women are more willing to go to mediation than men. Studies show that men are not willing to go to mediation especially when their gender roles are conflicted.

This research will confirm the link of the relationship between gender roles and mediation. The studies will reveal that women are more willing to go to mediation than men. The research will also show that couples are willing to make there negotiations alone in the process of divorce. Hypothesis 1: Women are more willing to go to mediations than men. Null Hypothesis 1: Women are not willing to go to mediations than men. A specific and well-justified research design This research will be done using the fixed quantitative research design method.

This is the traditional scientific approach that uses human inquiry model known as the positivism. This kind of method is systematic and a methodological process that is rational (Polit & Hungler, 1999). This is a data collection method of collecting numerical data that can be used for statistical analysis (Jack & Clarke, 1998). Quantitative research design method uses patterns and experiments, questionnaires design and experimental procedures methods for data collection.

Descriptive research, which provides an account of the features of individuals and groups, correlational research, which examines the link between variables by providing a hypothesis that can be tested and casual or experimental research, which provides the framework for establishing a link between a cause and an effect, are the three levels of quantitative research design (Jack & Clarke, 1998). The other method of data collection used is the sampling, which is the method of collection of data using samples, population and census.

This method is appropriate because it records the behavior without relying on the reports from the respondents and it provides accurate and reliable results since it involves any procedure that uses a small number of items or a portion of a population to make a conclusion regarding the whole population. The person doing the research simply records what is being observed (Zikmund, 2003). There are two major types of sampling which include the probability and non-probability. The probability sampling involves simple random, systematic, stratified and cluster sampling.

The non-probability sampling involves the convenience, judgment, quota and snowball sampling (Creswell, 2003). Another quantitative method is investigation which involves information gathering from a representative sample by use of questionnaires, interviews, observation and sampling. A questionnaire is a method of data collection which involves the use of questions that are listed then distributed to the targeted population for information gathering using the answers given. The questionnaires are then collected back for data analysis (Zikmund, 2003).

The questions should be relevant and accurate, they should either be fixed-alternative such as checklists and frequency-determination or open-ended questions. The questions should be of simple language and specific (Berger, 2000). In this research, the type of data analysis that will be used is the reliability analysis which uses the Cronbach’s alpha cofficeint. In this analysis, the researcher applies the obtained scores as an estimate of the real scores. Here, the acceptable reliability is 0. 85 or higher depending on the number of items and the situation of the research (Creswell, 2003).

The other one is the descriptive analysis, which is the transformation of the raw data into easy to understand and interpret form. This involves the calculation of the average, frequency distribution, percentages distribution, which involves calculating the data in the scale of 100% and tabulation of the data, which is the arranging of the data in a table format (Zikmund, 2003). These design method is referred to as the traditional scientific approach to research that has its setbacks in the philosophical paradigm for human inquiry known as positivism (Polit and Hungler, 1999).

The quantitative method of analyzing research has three levels that can be used for presenting data. They are experimental, descriptive and correlational. Strengths and weaknesses By use of the Quantative method of analyzing research it assists in providing an account of the characteristics of certain people, groups or situations (Jack and Clarke, 1998). this is necessary because it helps in knowing the frequency with which something occurs, that if it occurs frequently or occasionally and thus this helps us in knowing how to categorize them.

For example by use of the descriptive statistics, the researcher reported on the frequency of occurrence and percentage of couples activities that either helped or would have helped them solve conflicts between themselves and cope incase of a crisis situation. The implication of this is people may not be themselves especially when they get to know that there is someone studying them. Hence, the researcher may end up getting wrong facts about a certain study being carried out (Jack and Clarke, 1998).

Data collected by the means of quantitative method helps in examining the relationships that exist between variables without introducing an intervention. The main reason of this is to generate hypotheses that can be tested in the experimental research (Parahoo, 1997; Burns and Grove, 1999). it helps in examining the relationship between the age, the duration the couples have been together, and the effect of gender mediation on the couples. It also provides a framework for establishing the relationship between the cause and the effect (Roe, 1994, Mulhall, 1994).

this is because you can easily be able to tell the repercussion of having equal rights between people of both genders. The implication of this is that there is need for education and training relevant to the needs of both people of different genders since different people have different needs. Quantitative research is regarded by many as an optimum way of quantative methodology for obtaining reliable information about the mediation or inter-vention effect (McMahon, 1994; Mulhall, 1994; Sibbald and Roland, 1998; Donnan, 2000; Richardson, 2000; Polit et al. , 2001).

From a review this research, it is readily apparent that the power and strength of Quantitative research is related to control. This involves strict application of standardized procedures to reduce systematic bias and eliminate erroneous conclusions (Hicks, 1998; Burns and Grove, 1999). Areas of future research The areas of future research include that the people carrying out the experimental research should be guided on how to conduct a negotiation. This is because there has been little research on the perception of the negotiability of situations, especially when negotiations are not prescribed.

Although (Babcock, 2006) studies provided initial evidence for gender differences in the propensity to initiate a negotiation, they were field studies that had a number of limitations. For example, if the first study relied on the past reports that could have been subjected to biasness, the second study could not have areas on control for gender differences that could have existed in the for instance couples bargaining advantage For example, on the work activities (Getliffe, 1998).

The other area that needs research is on the area that women are less likely to initiate negotiations than women are. This is most likely because women are not aware of such opportunities to negotiate. It has been discovered that it is the framing of situations that make the gender differences to occur thus initiating negotiations, with some frames exacerbating and some frames attenuating the gender differences (Kray, 2000). Brown and Levinson (1987) said that women may not prefer a polite language in all situations but it is their low power status that leads them to prefer politeness.

Studies have shown that power can vary according to a particular situation but have not clearly stated what type of situation; hence, further research is needed to describe different types of occasions. For example, Stuhlmacher (1999), showed a situational experience of power that makes individuals to act against an annoying stimulus in the environment, to take resources when they are available and to take action in competitive situations. Gender and going to mediation The question of whether there is a relationship between gender and going to mediation usually raises a lot of concern more so in counseling psychology.

In my opinion gender has effect on going to mediation. For instance, according to Pederson and Vogel, (2007) men who experience high levels or gender role conflicts have low positive attitudes and are thus less likely to mediation. According to their findings to investigate a possible relationship between role conflict of gender and willingness to go to mediation, Pederson and Vogel made use of three mediators, stigma associated with counseling, disclosing stressful information, as well as the attitudes concerning counseling (Robson, 2003). The findings of their study indicated that the relationship was partly influenced by the three factors.

The findings indicated that men who were undergoing more cases of role conflicts displayed more tended to be self-stigmatized besides being in a less position to self-disclose (Robson, 2003). The implication for high self-stigma and disclosure eventually contributed to less positive attitudes which eventually translated to reduced willingness to go to mediation (Pederson & Vogel, 2007). The implication here is that the way men and women react to stressful situation ort any other traumatic situation which could warrant going to mediation is different.

Women for instance tend to deal with stress through tending and befriending (Krupnick et al. , 2004). What is meant here is that women nurture those around them besides reaching out to others. Women befriend by social networking and maintaining contacts which proves useful in distressing times. In other words, when undergoing a stressful experience, women tend to discuss the problem with friends while men on the other hand tend to seek ways of escaping the situation by engaging in several activities.

Gender has effect on going to mediation because of the simple reason that men and women react in different ways to undesirable situations which necessitate the need for mediation or counseling such as excessive stress. The difference in reaction has been attributed to the difference in hormones between the genders (Golier et al, 2003). This plays a major role in the way the brain handles stress. Cortisol and epinephrine raise a person’s blood pressure and circulating blood sugar level when stress occurs. Cortisol also lowers the effectiveness of the immune system.

When cortisol and epinephrine are released into the bloodstream in women during a stressful situation, oxytocin is released from the brain, countering the production of cortisol and epinephrine, and producing nurturing and relaxing emotions. The same thing happens in men but the production of oxytocin is in small amounts that cannot counter the effects of the chemical reaction. This leads to a higher level of stress in men. Consequently, men like the fight and flight pattern of stress response in which case the implication is that chronic stress can lead to chronic health problems.

Women find it easier to cry when they face stress and this enables the tension to diminish. They are also better at handling talk therapy with their peers. This enables them to get some sort of cathartic healing. Men tend to prefer the macho way by keeping their problems to themselves and thus creating problems for themselves (Golier et al. , 2003). From the above discussion it is very evident that there is a clear relationship between gender and the willingness to go to mediation (Robson, 2003). Men has been found to be lees willing to go to mediation as opposed to women because of the differences in the hormonal levels in their bodies.

This has the meaning that the hormonal variations influence the gender response to stressful situation that would warrant counseling or mediation (Plutchik, 1989). Conclusion In the final analysis however, it must be stated that there are several factors that may disapprove the above theory. As earlier stated, women are more wiling to go to mediation than men. However this does not imply that men do not go for mediations at all. There are some factors which when considered would render the hypothesis state above as meaningless. One such factor is heredity.

Even though female gender has been found to more likely to seek mediation as well as being goods ate coping, research has equally demonstrated that these conditions sometimes find their bases on hereditary characteristics (Humphrey, 2004). The implication here is that if hereditary, then it is equally likely to find more men going to mediation. The other factor which could disapprove the above hypothesis is self esteem. Self-esteem refers to the ability of one to cope with life challenges in a confident manner alongside being able to be contented with ones progress.

Self esteem is very important aspect which greatly influences the way in which gender is related to the willingness to go to mediation (Robson, 2003). This is because self esteem encompassed the experience or history of all a person’s feelings, actions, and thoughts. What is implied here therefore is that if an individual had been socialized to believe in himself, most likely he would go through life confidently and more often than not successfully irrespective of their gender. Those people with a high level of self-esteem cope well when affected by calamities or challenges in life.

They see them as an opportunity to reveal their strength of character and come out of the experience a stronger person (Branden, 1992). References Berger, A. A. (2000). Media and Communication Research Methods: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Branden, N. (1992). The Power of Self-Esteem. Deerfield: Health Communications. Creswell, W. J. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Golier, J. , Yehuda, R. , & Bierer, L. M. , Mitropoulou,V.

, New, A. S. , Schmeidler, J. , et al (2003). The Relationship of Borderline Personality Disorder to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Events. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160 (11). Getliffe, K. (1998) Developing a protocol for a randomised controlled trial: factors to Consider. Nurse Researcher 6:1, 5–17. Humphrey, H. J. (2004). Women and Stress. USA: Nova Publishers. Fiske, J. A. & Hon. Perlman, G. L. (2005). Mediation and Other Dispute Resolution Alternatives. Cambridge Jack, B. & Clarke, A. M. (1998). The value of quantitative research in nursing.

Professional Nurse. 13:1, 753–756. Krupnick, J. L. , Green, B. L. , Stockton, P. , Goodman, L. , Corcoran, C. , & Petty, R. (2004). Mental health effects of adolescent trauma exposure in a female college sample: Exploring differential outcomes based on experiences of unique trauma types and dimensions. Psychiatry 2004; 67:264-279 Keaveny, T. J. , & Inderrieden, E. J. (2000). Gender differences in pay satisfaction In addition, pay expectations. Journal of Managerial Issues, 12, 363–380. Kray, L. J. , & Thompson, L. (2005). Gender stereotypes and negotiation perform


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  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Date: 4 October 2016

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