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What is Personality?

Categories: Personality


Holzman defines Personality as “a characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and that can be observed in people’s relations to the environment and to the social group.” (Holzman, 1996)

Set of traits defines a person’s personality. Some of the popular personality theories are: Hans Eysencks Personality Trait Theory and Raymond Cattell’s Personality Trait Theory.

These two theories differs in their focus and points in determining one’s personality.

Through research and statistical analysis, Eysencks determined that personality is composed of three main elements: Extroversion, Psychoticism, and Neuroticism. “Eysenck’s theory argues strongly that biological predispositions towards certain personality traits combined with conditioning and socialisation during childhood in order to create our personality.”

On the other hand, Raymond Cattell created a taxonomy of 16 Personality Factor that could help determine, describe, and explain individual distinction of people’s personality.

The following traits are: Warmth, Intellect, Emotional Stability, Aggressiveness, Liveliness, Dutifulness, Social Assertiveness, Sensitivity, Paranoia, Abstractness, Introversion, Anxiety, Open-mindedness, Independence, Perfectionism, and Tension. Cattell’s 16 Personality Factor Personality Questionaires are often used in counselling such as career counselling, marital counselling, it is also used in business for employee selection and testing.

Overview of the Assessment

Locus of Control

This concept of personality test was originally developed by a psychologist named, Julian B. Rotter. This concept is divided into two: Internal Locus Of Control and External Locus Of Control.

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This psychological concept refers to the degree in which people believe that they have control over what is happening in their lives or the outcome of incidents are out of their hands. Someone with an Internal Locus Of Control believes that his/ her success is because of pure hard work. If he/ she fails that means, not enough effort was put into work. On the other hand, Someone with an External Locus Of Control associates its success or failure with luck or fate. “People with an external locus of control are also more likely to experience anxiety since they believe that they are not in control of their lives.” (Joelson, 2017)
My scores from this assessment test are:


Thus, I have an Internal Locus of Control. The result suggests that I tend to believe that internal factors like drive and free will define me more than external factors like genetics, fate, luck, and environment.

Short Test (Jung’s I-E-S-N-F-T-J-P)

This concept of personality test was developed based on the theory of personality of a Swiss psychologist and psychotherapist, named Carl Jung. This test was “developed to demonstrate the complexity of human typology and its consequences.” (Psychologia, n.d.) Jung classifies personality using the following; Two Personality Attitude: Extroversion and Introversion, and the Four Functions: Thinking, Sensation, Intuition, and Feeling. Jung has a different concept of Extroverted and Introverted.
“Someone who is introverted, focuses on their own mental world. Extraverted people focus more on the world outside themselves.” (Hendricks, 2018)
My scores from this assessment test are:

  • Extroverted (E) 34 % Introverted (I) 30%
  • Sensing (s) 58% I Ntuitive (N) 26%
  • Feeling (F) 50% Thinking (T) 37%
  • Judging (J) 55% Perceiving (P) 27%

My Personality type based on this assessment is ESFJ – “Seller” Most sociable of all types. Nurturer of harmony, Outstanding host or hostesses.

The Big Five Personality Test

The Big Five Personality Traits are five extensive domain which help define people’s individual differences and personality. The Big Five Factor or Personality Test was developed by Robert McCrae and Paul Costa. The Five Factor Model of Personality was developed to establish “common taxonomy” and to help indicate on how a person react in different situations. The Big Five are easily remembered by many with this acronym, O-C-E-A-N. These factors are: Open-Mindedness, Conscientious, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism (Emotional Stability).

My scores from this assessment test are:

  • Open-Mindedness = 2%
    (Low scorers tend to be conventional, down to earth, narrow interests, uncreative”
  •  Conscientiousness = 62%
    (High scorers tend to be reliable, well-organized, self-disciplined, and careful)
  • Extraversion = 5%
    (Low scorers tend to be introverted, reserved, inhibited, quiet)
  • Agreeableness = 12%
    (Low scorers tend to be critical, rude, harsh, callous)
  • Negative Emotionality = 95%
    (High scorers tend to be nervous, high-strung, insecure, worrying

Synthesis of Data

According from the score from my first assessment which is the Locus of Control Personality Test, I conclude that I have an Internal Locus of Control. I strongly believe that the consequences or the results of my actions are based on my abilities and pure hard work. If I fail on something, I would not say “better luck next time” rather, I would work even harder to achieve the results that I am aiming for.

The scores from my second assessment which is the Short Test, states that I have an “Extraverted” personality. According to the result, I apparently, prefer to focus my attention on the outer world of people and things. Also, from the result, the way I prefer to take in information is by “Sensing”. The way I prefer to make decisions is based primarily on values and subjective evaluation of person-centered concerns. And finally, the way I prefer to deal with the outer world is by “Judging”. Judging tends to like a planned and organized approach to life. (Roy, 2018)

The results from my assessment from The Big Five Personality Test, indicates under Open-mindedness that I prefer traditional and familiar experiences. As I scored a little over 50% under the category of Conscientiousness, it indicates that I am well-organized and reliable. Under Extraversion, I scored very low. Low scorers tends to be introverted who loves to enjoy spending quiet time alone. I scored low under Agreeableness, low scorers are described to be critical, rude, mean and harsh. And lastly, my Negative Emotionality score is very high, which generally means I am an anxious person and tend to worry about things.

Critique and Analysis

Locus of Control Test

The result from the assessment concludes that I have an Internal Locus Of Control. I would have to agree with this as I believe in hard work and perseverance over luck and fate. For instance, If I do not get a hired from companies I have applied to, I would not think It is because I’m unlucky or that position is not for me. I would think, maybe I made a mistake in answering a question or I stutter a lot. What I can do to in that kind of situation is keep on applying to other companies and I will practice repeatedly prior to my interview. I would also study and do research about the company and do my best on my next interview.

Short Test (Jung’s I-E-S-N-F-T-J-P)

The scores from this particular personality test conclude that I have an “Extraversion” personality. I would have to disagree with that, since a person who is an extravert is described as someone who open, outgoing, enjoys talking, and so on, it is the opposite of “me”. I despise being in crowded places, especially places full of strangers, I do not like to open up to people, I hate doing group works, etc. For example, I never attended dinner parties hosted by my boss because if I did I will have to talk to my co-workers about things that are not work-related. I do not like to socialize or entertain others. Another example of me being an introvert, My mom wanted to invite people to celebrate my birthday, I got upset as I do not like many people coming over our apartment. I prefer an intimate dinner with my mom and siblings and 2 close friends over a party.

The Big Five Personality Test

I agree with the scores I got from this assessment. The results are accurate, although some of the traits or personality that describes me are not pleasing at all. Under the factor of Agreeableness, I scored very low, which means, I am rude or harsh to people. This is actually true, but I only act rudely depends on the situation. A specific example, at work, when I see my co-workers leisurely walking around doing nothing and using their phone while I am getting some work done, I get upset and start talking rudely them. They did not do anything particularly bad to me, It’s just that I hate it when people are relaxing around while I’m working hard. Another example, in school, whenever there is a group work, I treat the group members who do not put the effort in their work for their parts on the group assignment/project. I would kick them out of the group chat and roll my eyes on them whenever I see them.


To summarize, the web-based personality test was really helpful in establishing my personality profile. The Locus of Control, Short Test, and The Big Five Personality Test gave pretty accurate results. These personality tests assessed my personality by how I respond or react to certain situations. Overall, my personality falls under introversion.

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What is Personality?. (2020, Sep 04). Retrieved from

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