What is Management?
What is Management?
There are three words in the question need to be understood when we start going about the question. Firstly what is a manager and secondly to what extent is good people skills and lastly what is it mean by doing a job well. From my own understanding, manager’s function cannot be entirely identified, as one manager’s job can be significantly or slightly different to another. But manager takes up significantly in part which deals with people and “human skill is the executive’s ability to work effectively as a group member and to build cooperative effort within the team he leads (Robert L. Katz, 1974, p 98).”
Managers cannot do their job well without people skills. People skills conceive many different prospective and ideas which can be practiced in real by managers, these which this essay is going to concentrate on interrelationship between leadership and it’s components and motivation. These key people skills draw our attention to the importance of a manager as that an organization is build up with people and the key to a successful manager is how they manage people to help the organization to achieve it’s goals and objectives efficiently and effectively.
Leadership and motivation
Firstly and which this essay will mostly contribute to is the leadership skill and how it could improve, develop and effect motivation. Because after all, the managers job is making sure people are at the right job and have constant improvement and enthusiasm and are devoted to their job and the well being of the organization. This part of people skills covers almost every aspect of what a manager need in order to perform their job well. The APJQM state out some extremely important qualities a leader must have and these qualities are grouped as visibility, self-regard and self-development, equality, integrity, ethical decision making and participatory which assist significantly towards people skills.
Leaders need to be visible which means leaders need to be recognized and noticed as leaders. For instance, a leader who manages a sales team but always sits in the office room with air-condition and have do not disturb sign out at the front of his door while his team members running around headless would definitely be not visible to his sales team members, which could well led to de-motivation and failure of teamwork. “The leaders should be charismatic, having an attractive vision and captivating and exciting speaking skills which communicate this vision, an ability to excite others, and being high in energy so that they are see as dynamic (Susanne Lawrence, 1993, p28).”
Because managers are constantly visible to he/her team members or groups, it gives people the feeling that the managers are constantly approach them for the purpose of satisfy their social needs and doing his/her part of job as a manager. If a manager cannot be constantly visible to communicate and interact with the team, they could well lose people’s trust and demonstrate the inability to be one of the team member that consequently let down the team spirit.
Self-regard and Self- development
“Self-regard of leaders must be positive to allow the independence of thought, the confidence, the strength of purpose and conviction necessary to make changes necessary for quality (Lawrence, 1993, p28)”. Positive self-regard allows a shield against both external and internal disapproval and consequently the ability to learn from it. This element within a manager is very important as that a leader could well make mistakes and is discriminate by people whom the manager leads. As the leader is aware of his mistakes and learnt from it, he/she could perform better and able to build confidence within other people with the next objective or goals of the organization.
Similarly, self-development is essential within a leader in the sense of being a role model for people, leaders need to make sure that he/she self is strived for further improvement. So that the organization’s employees are confident knowing their leader is well prepared for any critical changes or situations. A survey conducted with 63 managers in large firms by HRM journal (2000) state that managers who are self-aware are more effective than those who are not self-aware. As a consequence, they say that features of self-aware leadership (have self-regard and self-development) may provide important selection criteria for managers.
Equality, Integrity and Ethical decision-making
Furthermore, integrity in line with equality and ethical decision-making are also very vital as that they are all key leadership features. “Leaders need to tell the truth, to not hide the facts, to keep promises, to treat others fairly and to demonstrate mutual respect (Lawrence, 1993, p29).”But not only the manager has to be integrate with employees, the employees also expect to do the same. General manager Tony Faure of Yahoo (1999) says much of the growth of the business is attributed to employee satisfaction. This satisfaction depend much on the people skills of manager. One good way of satisfy employee is to put trust in employees and providing them with the freedom to achieve success in order to boosting employee morale and ultimately the productivity of the firm.
Managers have to express mutual respect for others and their talents, treating them fairly and consistently. Equality towards employees does not mean that all employees should have the same allocation of distribution of benefits and burdens. It requires the approach that depends on the diversity of different groups and their contributions. In the sense of fairness, information sharing, training, reward systems and equal employment opportunity structures should be well present to the employees. This system of allocation of benefits and burdens has to be cautiously measured by managers to create an environment that motivates people in which they believe that they are all part of a competent organization that promises their esteem needs. For instance, manager (Sarah Lorden, 1999) in a real estate agency point out that her sales team are set targets and rewarded with a commission if these are met, this method satisfied team members on basis that their achievement is recognized.
Moreover, the participatory management also plays an important key approach to managing people. Managers are to be flexible in their working method depending on the task. This flexibility embraces good communication and sharing of information and responsibility between managers and employees. “The sharing of information at all levels in an organization is part of the process of empowerment ((Lawrence, 1993, p30).” Kirkman and Rosen (2000) studied 111 teams in four organizations. They found that more empowered teams were more productive and proactive than less empowered teams, and had higher levels of customer service, job satisfaction and organizational and team commitment. This flexibility participatory of leaders encourages employees to solve problems, setting high expectations to themselves and making of other supportive resources to the organization. Therefore it makes improvement for the organizational processes in return of the empowerment.
If managers are not sensitive to the needs, the ability of others as well as be not high on consideration and not prepared to play the role of teacher and coach, they cannot bring positive change for individuals and organizations. Because managers act as powerful catalyst, they have to be able to assist the transformation of firms wishing to empower people to meet the demands of the market. The emphasis here is on continuous improvement performance of individuals and organizations can be achieved if manager is a good catalyst.
Creativity relate highly to motivation. According to HRM journal (2000), employees with high self-motivation for creativity related tasks could produce higher liver of creative outputs. If they work with manager who also had high self-motivation, their creative performance was enhanced further. And also, the creativity of employees was found to be significantly higher where the relationship between manager and employees was supportive and where the leader provided greater job latitude and concerned about both eliminate constraints to employee performance and provide opportunities of challenge. A great example can be spotted such as comparing employees that do repetitive job and these that do a wide range of different activities. These that do repetitive job have a low performance and these that do creative job have a higher performance.
Management is on of the most complex and extensively exercised activity that contains new and different findings everyday that organizations implement. Without the function of management in an organization, it would be impossible for organizations to achieve any of its goals and objectives. Why? Because management deals with people which an organization is made up of. Management creates a possible environment for people to recognize and develop human characteristics for themselves, a process of motivation that improve and achieve organization goals.
The people skills mentioned above are only a small part of people skills that can only give a part of the big picture, which can never be completely correct or understand. But in no doubt, a manager without any of the skills mentioned can indirectly or directly impact upon the performance of an organization even bring an organizational withdrawal.
·Inside Business Success (1999), “Keep Staff Happy”, October.
·People Management (1995), “Coaching gets to parts that other methods cannot reach”, 5th October.
·Human Resources Management Volume 13 Number 3 2002, “Approaches to Equity
and Encouraging Women in Management”, Spring.
·Human Resources Management Volume 11 Number 3 2000, “Leadership and Creativity”, Spring.
·Stephen P Robbins, Rolf Bergman, Ian Stagg, Mary Coulter (2003), Motivation, “Management, 3rd edition.”
·Robert L Katz (1974), “skills of an effective administrator”, September-October.