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western civ

1) According to Cicero, what is the source of all law?
According to Cicero the source of all law is knowing what nature’s gifts are to man and what the mind enjoys. Also what unites men that only natural fellowship does.
2) What is the relationship of civil law to law as Cicero defines it?
Defines it as a small narrow corner. You must explain the nature of justice and which should be looked for by man’s nature. Also consider what the laws of the state are. Also consider the decrees of nations that have been in place by writing.
3) Do you find in this selection any evidence of a stoic concept of universal human brotherhood and equality?
He is talking about nature not anything tangible. Human brotherhood is present because he says we must understand what unites men by nature’s fellowship.

secrete history
Bishop Procopius of Caesaria, in his time couldn’t write the real truth. He feared the spies and says they would have killed him in a “most horrible death” (223). It makes sense that they wouldn’t want him to write down all the actions of Justinian and Theodora. He gives his reason for distinguishing between official and secret for the following reasons. He wants to recorded the truth it makes sense he is a historian why would he want to write lies. He explains from a personal perspective which is a first person which I find more reliable and he was very determine to write the truth. He made it his “duty of completing this work” (223).

He talks about the injustice and lack of leadership Justinian and his wife. The real truth of both of their barbaric actions.
His work is reliable because he is in fact a historian writing his account during the same time of the construction of Justinian and the war. He wanted to write the truth even thou he knew that it might not make seem “probable nor plausible to future generations”.

The Martyrdom of Perpetua
Ways that this text could have survived was that it was hidden well or that it was told verbally and then written down later.
It also says she recorded it down. Her father does not support her faith. He believes she is a fool that her actions will hurt her family. He still loves her he always choice her side over her brother. after being mad at her he visited multiple times and even cried for her to stop. He took her baby so he could be raised safe.

This story tells me that the Roman’s do not support Christianity. The Christians prayed to one god and had huge faith in their savior. When she says that she “became a man” in the arena was because she had to fight and she totally proved herself. Gender equality is not a thing in this era of human history.

The Life of Charlemagne
Charlemagne was Emperor of the west and king of Franks. Charlemagne’s personality was that of a standup guy he loved his family over everything and treated them with respect. He loved all his children even if they were a boy or girl evenly he never liked to be apart from them. He lived a good old life. His nice personality worked well with his policies as king because he cared for the people and became a wise ruler. He was Emperor of the west. He was a family man and a devoted Christian he built a beautiful cathedral in Aachen. He spread Christianity and also united the Germanics.
There is a weakness about the emperor or he says he “discovered many defects in the legal system of his own people”(252). Einhard was Charlemagne since they were young. Charlemagne and Einhard were close friends. Einhard wrote down the private life of his close friend Charlemagne before he passed away. We can determine from this source that women got involved in the courts of Carolingian.

12 tables
The 12 tables are roman laws inscribed on tablets Romans value society, justice, it shows that

Romans value. Organized structure they even have a trial procedure. These time in way to

me remind of the ten testaments that deal with social and laws. A lot of these laws deal with

money issues. The father must kill a deformed child. If the father sells the son the “son is free

from his father” (158). If a child is born ten months after his father’s death will not be able

to inherit his father’s wealth legally. The roles of family in early Roman law is that women

obey men. Father has option of selling son and they really want to leave there inheritance in

the family but there are laws if that is not possible. They use capital punishment and corporal

punishment. Its the ultimate form of punishment because you’re taking that person’s life

Byzantines collected Greek & Roman works/manuscripts
He was the emperor of eastern roman empire. First emperor to convert to Christianity.

Justinian –
Very religious – persecuted pagans and Jews
Married Theodora ( former prostitute).
Justinian attempted to take Western Territory
Justinian’s ultimate goal was Italy (Rome)

Roman Religion:
Ritual critical
Adopted deities from Greeks

Caesar’s grandnephew
18 yrs. old
Octavian – supreme ruler of Rome
Late Republic & Augustan age =
Greco-Roman Civilization
Rome divided:
West – Octavian
East – Mark Antony

Early Empire (14-180 CE)
Tiberius (14-37)
Caligula (37-41)
Claudius (41-54)
Nero (54-68

Palestinian Jews:
Saducees – rigid adherence to ‘Law’
Pharisees – synagogue authority
Essenes – separatist sect near Dead Sea
Zealots – militant & radical separatists -caused war with Rome

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