Ways of bullying Essay
Ways of bullying
There are different ways to bully the victim. It can be categorised into the following: – Direct bullying: In this case, the victim is subjected to hitting, kicking, shoving, teasing, racial slurs, threatening or obscene gestures. – Indirect bullying: In this way of bullying, somebody bullies the victim on behalf or if it involves spreading rumours, exclusion, cyber-bullying etc. Here the bullying is a passive- aggressive action. (Richter, N. , 2005) Bullying Circle The bullying circle involves different roles that contribute to the bullying at various stages.
Figure 2: The bullying circle (Olweus, D. , 2001) The different roles can be described as: ? Bullies – The bullies plan and/or start the bullying activity and take an active part. ? Followers/ Henchmen: They take an active part in the bullying activities but do not plan or start the bullying. ? Active supporters/ Passive bullies: The active supporters cheer or encourage the bully in carrying out the activities. They seek social or material gain. ? Passive supporters/ Possible bullies: The passive supporters enjoy the bullying activities but do not show open support.
They like the action happening. ? Disengaged onlookers: These set of people observe the activities but turn away from the site believing that it is none of their business. They do not take a stand against the activities even if they find it wrong. ? Possible defenders: The possible defenders dislike the bullying activity and they think that they should intervene and stop it. However they do not interfere with the activities. ? Defenders of the target: This set of people dislike the bullying activity. They help or try to help the one who is exposed or the victim.
Common Characteristics of a Bully and a Victim Bully The children who bully are found to have certain characteristics that help to identify them. These characteristics include the following: – They are usually hyperactive. These children find difficulty in concentrating. – They are quick tempered. They typically fight back when they are provoked. These children are also observed to have certain visible profile that helps to distinguish them from the normal children. – They get into frequent fights with other children or other people; – They get injured in a fight; – They steal or vandalize property;
– They drink alcohol or smoke; – They are truant and usually drops out of the school; – They usually report poorer academic grades; – They perceive a negative climate in the school; – They carry a weapon. (AMA, 2002) A distinctive characteristic of typical bullies as found by studies is their aggression towards peers as well as adults including parents and teachers. They generally have a positive attitude towards violence. They are also characterized by a strong need to dominate others and they are also usually impulsive. They are usually very low in empathy towards their victims.
In boys, they are usually found to be physically stronger than other boys and in particular when compared to the victims (Olweus, 1993) A significant number of researches on anti-social behaviour among children indicate that their behaviour is as a result of interaction between the individual child and his or her peer group, school and the community. In related studies on bullying indicate that there is no single set of reasons for bullying but is contributed by different factors such as individual characteristics, family, peer, school and community factors. (AMA, 2002).
The study by Dan Olweus found that 60% of the boys who bullied in the middle school had at least one conviction by the age of 24. Further 40% had three of more convictions at the age of 24. There are several reasons for bullying identified by young people. Bullying is seen to be an easy way to be popular and get known among the students in a school. They often indulge in bullying to hide their fear by scaring other students. Some bullies let out their frustrations and unhappy mental state on others. Another key reason is because some of the victims become bullies as a retaliation of their experiences.
Some students use bullying as an entertainment and try to be happier. Victim The children who are bullied are likely to have lower self esteem, higher rates of depression, higher absenteeism rates at school and more suicidal thoughts. The key characteristics of a victim of bullying are: – They may be bullied by many children – They try to bully younger, weaker children – They have poor relationships with their classmates – They are usually loners – They have low academic achievements – They have higher rates of smoking and alcohol use – They fight more frequently The victim displays visible profile that helps to distinguish them.
This includes the following: – They usually have ailments like headache – They have sleeping problems – They have abdominal pains – They feel tense – They have anxiety – They feel unhappy – They are depressed (AMA, 2002) The victims can be categorised into different segments who display different characteristics – passive victims and aggressive victims. Passive victims avoid aggression and confrontation. They do not elicit help from peers. They break down easily and will not fight back. They are usually not assertive and are generally anxious in social situations.
Aggressive victims may behave in ways that could irritate others. They may tease and taunt others. They usually lack the social skills to deal with the issues and hence come out as aggressive. This makes the respond to others in an aggressive fashion. (Pepler, D. , 1998) Studies show that 15-25% of U. S students are bullied with some frequency. It also showed that 15-20% of students bully others with some frequency. (Melton et al, 1998: Nansel et al, 2001). The studies of the individual personalities and attitudes of the children provided characteristics that are in common.
The bully is usually quite outgoing and socially confident. The bully shows very little anxiety or guilt and conform to their own ideal as being dominant and powerful in their own peer group. They also tend to see aggression as an acceptable and realistic way of expressing their social position, perceiving it as being supported by the attitudes of their families. Bullied children or the victims shows the opposite characteristics in many respects when compared to the bullies. They do not feel confident in their peer interactions in general.
They have poor self-assertive skills, poor handling of the aggressive reactions in particular and shows much more anxiety when encountered with social interactions. (Smith, P. K. et al, 1994) The typical victims are generally more anxious, insecure, cautious, sensitive and quiet. When attacked by other students, they commonly react by crying at least in lower grades. They also display withdrawal. As they suffer from low self-esteem, they have a negative view about themselves and the situation they are undergoing. This leads them to look themselves as a failure, feel stupid, ashamed and unattractive.
Usually the victims are lonely and abandoned at the school by their peers. Most of them are found to have no single good friend in their class. (Smith, P. K. et al, 1999) The victims have been identified into different sub-groups in some studies such as Pikas (1989). This study distinguishes the victims into ‘classic’ or ordinary victim, who do not contribute to the cause of bullying. The second category is ‘provocative’ victim, who are generally disruptive and behaves inappropriately and can be seen as contributing to the bullying they receive. (Smith, P. K. et al, 1994).
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 5 June 2017
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