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After the industrial revolution, rapid urbanization increased solid waste worldwide,including in Azerbaijan.It brings together important issues like environmental pollution.Also as Azerbaijan is well known with its oil sector(the 2nd dirtiest fuel sector in the world) emissions created large amount of solid waste, especially on the west cost of Caspian Sea.For avoiding waste and building a good solid waste management UN creates UNEP(United Nation Environmental Programme). They have an interest in the environmental situation of Azerbaijan and Caspian Sea.
Solid waste management is gathering, transportation, processing, recycling, and disposal of solid waste materials so as to reduce their effect on health, environment and aesthetics.It is related with urbanization. Because after cities began getting bigger, solid waste is a crucial problem.Municipials are using garbage teams to avoid this problem. In developed countries as the industrial sector is strong,the waste disposal level is high,but they have a really good waste management system to maintain the balance.
In the other hand developing countries have less solid waste,but the capacity of developing countries to collect, process and dispose waste is limited due to inadequate infrastructure, finance, political instability, inefficient institutional capacity and structure, and low level of awareness.
These circumstances acquainted various inconveniences with networks and undermine people’s wellbeing through direct contact, sullying of water and soil. Azerbaijan is developing country,but it tends to fix it with different programs for solid waste management with the companion of World Bank and other foreign countries.
In 2008 Kathiravale & Mohd Yunus wrote in their articles in the urban areas pollution and waste level are growing very fast.Main reason is development,industrilization and urbanization. Urbanization and industrialization leads to new lifestyles which also affects waste composition from mainly organic to synthetic material that last longer such as plastics and other packaging material (Idris et al., 2004).
The waste management not only vary within countries but also among areas of one country.For example,the waste management in Istanbul is in a good situation but in other rural regions it is very low. With Azerbaijan’s quick financial development, the family unit utilization of items and administrations has been expanding, bringing about bigger amounts of domestic wastes created. The arrangement of metropolitan waste gathering, transportation and transfer functions are working well in Baku, yet existing landfills don’t meet global sterile principles and can be a wellspring of ailments and dangerous for the scene. The rural regions are just somewhat secured by waste administrations. Re-utilize and reusing of waste is done on a restricted scale.
The Government of Azerbaijan has incorporated the waste administration as one of the key needs of the National Sustainable Development Strategy, and has possessed the capacity to achieve significant advancement in strong waste administration (SWM). With the end goal to proceed with the effectiveness-driven changes here, the Government has asked for UNDP’s specialized help for enhancing the strong waste administration in the nation. The main Donors were Norway and UNDP.
The overall purpose of the research is to support the reform of Azerbaijan waste collection and disposal operations into effective and sustainable system in the fields of (a)data collection and strategic planning, (b)development of operational management and communication capabilities of the responsible agency, (c) the improvement of environmental conditions at the existing disposal sites. Particularly, the study has the following sub-objectives for to find a way to the improvement of the national system of waste management in Azerbaijan:
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