Vocational education (education based on occupation or employment) (also known asvocational education and training or VET) is education that prepares people for specific trades, crafts and careers at various levels from a trade, a craft, technician, or a professional position in engineering, accountancy, nursing, medicine, architecture, pharmacy, law etc. Craft vocations are usually based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation.
It is sometimes referred to as technical education as the trainee directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques. In the UK some higher technician engineering positions that require 4-5 year apprenticeship require academic study to HNC / HND or higher City and Guilds level. Vocational education may be classified as teaching procedural knowledge. This can be contrasted with declarative knowledge, as used in education in a usually broader scientificfield, which might concentrate on theory and abstract conceptual knowledge, characteristic of tertiary education.
Vocational education can be at the secondary, post-secondary level,further education level and can interact with the apprenticeship system. Increasingly, vocational education can be recognised in terms of recognition of prior learning and partialacademic credit towards tertiary education (e. g. , at a university) as credit; however, it is rarely considered in its own form to fall under the traditional definition of higher education. Vocational education is related to the age-old apprenticeship system of learning.
Apprenticeships are designed for many levels of work from manual trades to high knowledge work. However, as the labor market becomes more specialized and economies demand higher levels of skill, governments and businesses are increasingly investing in the future of vocational education through publicly funded training organizations and subsidized apprenticeship or traineeship initiatives for businesses. At the post-secondary level vocational education is typically provided by aninstitute of technology, university, or by a local community college.
Vocational education has diversified over the 20th century and now exists in industries such as retail, tourism, information technology,funeral services and cosmetics, as well as in the traditional crafts and cottage industries. Contents [hide] 1 VET internationally o o o o o o o 1. 1 Australia 1. 2 Commonwealth of Independent States 1. 3 Finland 1. 4 German-language areas 1. 5 Hong Kong 1. 6 Hungary 1. 7 India o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1. 8 Japan 1. 9 South Korea 1. 10 Mexico 1. 11 The Netherlands 1. 12 New Zealand 1. 13 Norway 1. 14 Paraguay 1. 15 Russia 1.
16 Sweden 1. 17 Switzerland 1. 18 Turkey 1. 19 United Kingdom 1. 20 United States 2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links VET internationally  Australia  In Australia vocational education and training is mostly post-secondary and provided through the vocational education and training (VET) system by registered training organisations. There were 24 Technical Colleges in Australia but now only 4 independent Trade Colleges remain with two in Queensland; one in Brisbane and one on the Gold Coast and one in Adelaide and Perth.
This system encompasses both public, TAFE, and private providers in a national training framework consisting of the Australian Quality Training Framework,Australian Qualifications Framework and Industry Training Packages which define the assessment standards for the different vocational qualifications. Australia’s apprenticeship system includes both traditional apprenticeships in traditional trades and “traineeships” in other more service-oriented occupations. Both involve a legal contract between the employer and the apprentice and provide a combination of school-based and workplace training.
Apprenticeships typically last three to four years, traineeships only one to two years. Apprentices and trainees receive a wage which increases as they progress.  Since the states and territories are responsible for most public delivery and all regulation of providers, a central concept of the system is “national recognition” whereby the assessments and awards of any one registered training organisation must be recognised by all others and the decisions of any state or territory training authority must be recognised by the other states and territories. This allows national portability of qualifications and units of competency.
Subject: Higher education,
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 26 October 2016
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