Showalter, Elaine, ‘Virginia Woolf and the Flight into Androgyny ‘ , in A Literature of Their Own: British Womans Novelists from Bronte to Lessing ( Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1977 ) , pp. 263-297.
In “ A Literature of Their Own, ” Elaine Showalter discusses the female experiences and their originative procedures in British fiction. She shows how adult females ‘s literature has evolved, get downing from the Victorian period to the Modern 1. She has written notes on the descriptive life of Virginia Woolf in this peculiar book.
Showalter described the female literary tradition in the English novel and the societal backgrounds of the adult females who composed it. Chapter 10 of the book, under the rubric: “ Virginia Woolf and the Flight into Androgyny, ” is devoted to the literary mastermind of Virginia Woolf albeit the maniac depression. This chapter conveys information about Showalter ‘s concerns beyond adult females authors and looks at the contradictions and tensenesss that shape adult females ‘s societal, psychological, and sexual development. It is bound to arouse dissension, if merely because it raised so many inquiries related to adult females ‘s place in the literary universe.
Showalter criticizes their plants for their androgynistic natures. For all its concern with sexual intensions and gender, the composing avoids existent contact with the organic structure, withdrawing from people into “ a room of one ‘s ain. ” In the visible radiation of this, Showalter ‘s well-known review of Woolf ‘s initiation of an aesthetic upon the ideal of hermaphroditism should itself be critically reconsidered. Showalter argues throughout the chapter that Woolf ‘s hermaphroditism ‘represents an flight from the confrontation with feminineness or masculinity, ‘ and that her celebrated definition of life as ‘a aglow aura, a semi-transparent envelope ‘ is ‘another metaphor of uterine backdown and containment.
‘ The false transcendency of ‘sexual individuality, ‘ or in Showalter ‘s phrase, ‘the flight into hermaphroditism ‘ sums to ‘evasions of world ‘ and of ‘the female experience, ‘ and this is presumed to ensue in Woolf ‘s ‘progressive proficient inability to suit the facts and crises of daily experience, even when she wanted to make so. ‘[ 1 ]What is posited in Showalter ‘s emphasis on ‘confrontation, ‘ ‘sexual individuality ‘ or ‘experience ‘ is what we might term a Lukfsian construct of a incorporate independent topic which is the exclusive agent of its ain development in confrontation with the environment. The chapter analyses the hermaphroditism, in general, as an flight of their ( adult females ) sexual individuality as a adult female or/and even as a return to ‘heterosexuality ‘ which ‘makes the universe go unit of ammunition ‘ as Marcus pointed out, ‘[ 2 ]otherwise of what many other critics – in general – say that Woolf ‘s hermaphroditism was insurgent and feminist in nature and non as Showalter described as.
Gilbert, Sandra A, ‘Costumes of the Mind: Transvestism as Metaphor in Modern Literature. ‘ In Gender Studies: New Directions in Feminist Criticism. Ed. by Judith Spector ( Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1986 ) , pp.70-98.
Susan Gilbert argues that most modernist male authors in English were concerned with reasserting, in a deeply conservative sense, the laterality and high quality of masculine gender, every bit good as adult male ‘s anterior claim to maleness. The post-war averment of maleness constituted a male intercession into a wide general field of linguistic communication and civilization instead than the patriot linked combativeness of earlier periods. The readings by Gilbert form a convincing statement that a figure of fictional episodes sometimes regarded as liberating and innovatory were concerned with the reaffirmation of conventional gender functions and heterosexualism instead than sexual revolution. Men represent an effort to shut off the possibilities for the alteration in adult females ‘s functions opened up by the events of the First World War, Gilbert claims. The job is that Gilbert ‘s manner of unfavorable judgment assumes a direct nexus between the sex of the writer and the text. Rather than look intoing the manner in which composing reveals an inconclusive ambivalency about sexual individuality, Gilbert insists on delegating a individual place to male modernist authors. Womans authors were, for the most portion, with the exclusion of Virginia Woolf, omitted from the modernist canon constructed by literary critics in the 19 1950ss and 1960ss. Literary production functioned as a model in which issues about the rights of adult females were foregrounded, at the same clip as they explored the additions and losingss experienced by adult females during that clip. On the other manus, the fictions of Virginia Woolf, in peculiar, picture the troubles of accomplishing a sense of female individuality, and beyond that, the impossibleness of happening any concluding, stable individuality for the topic. Her texts represent the frights, and retrace the debatable issues of being a adult female, every bit good as the pleasances of muliebrity and maleness, in such a manner as to convey into inquiry celebratory and empiricist theories of feminist unfavorable judgment.
Whitworth, Michael, ‘Virginia Woolf and Modernism ‘ , in The Cambridge Companion to Virginia Woolf. Ed. by Sue Roe and Susan Sellers ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000 ) , pp. 146-63.
“ Throughout her fiction and unfavorable judgment, Woolf expresses a penchant for a world which is semi-transparent, uniting the solidness of granite and the evanescence of rainbow. Though many critics have seen in modernism an irrationalist rejection of scientific discipline in favor of myth, in the instance of Woolf at least, the state of affairs is more complex. ” ( 2000:151 )
In his essay, Michael Whitworth discusses the significance of issues such as scientific discipline, political relations, and modern-day civilization which are discussed in relation to modernist Hagiographas. It is pointed out that critics have long neglected the significance of Virginia Woolf in such contexts. The sort of penetration into double world that Whitworth notices in Woolf attracts more critical attending in recent surveies of Modernism, particularly cognizing that it was non merely Woolf ‘s instance that the state of affairs was complex but besides that many creative persons, authors, and minds of different subjects, scientific or artistic, of the epoch shared a strong involvement in assorted Fieldss of scientific discipline such as life scientific discipline, eugenics, natural philosophies, depth psychology, and so on. Furthermore, his text delineates the usage to do a modern authorship, Modern. The text draws, rather exactly, the usage of scientific discipline in the narrations of fiction of early 20th century including with a long analyses over Virginia Woolf ‘s plants.
Farwell, Marilyn R, Virginia Woolf and Androgyny. Contemporary Literature, Vol. 16, No. 4 ( Autumn, 1975 ) , 433-451.
For Virginia Woolf, hermaphroditism was inseparably linked with a nostalgic want to hedge sexual difference even as she made the avowal of sexual difference the footing of a extremist sexual political relations. Androgyny represents, in Woolf ‘s authorship, ambivalency and contradiction: if it could be used to right the instability of patriarchal histories of history, so the supplication of the female organic structure as an reply to that instability merely affirms buildings of sexual difference. Farwell ‘s essay, “ Virginia Woolf and Androgyny ” discusses Woolf ‘s theory of hermaphroditism. He debates the relation between the etymology of hermaphroditism and its institutionalization into the narrative frame of Modernism. Giving illustrations from the novel “ A Room of One ‘s Own, ” Farwell points out that hermaphroditism appears to be “ either an inter-play of separate and alone elements or a merger of one into the other [ … ] ” ad, unluckily, most critics “ implicitly take one side or the other ” seeking non to see the of import differentiation which is important. His essay brings together assorted cases of critical idea that have problematised an apprehension of hermaphroditism by interrogating the premises about gender which many critics and bookman are covering with.
Johnson, Reginald Brimley, Some Contemporary Novelists ( Women ) , ( London: Leonard Parsons, 1920 ) , pp. 140-160.
Virginia Woolf ‘s essay ‘Modern Novels ‘ , which under its ulterior rubric ‘Modern Fiction ‘ became so celebrated as a pronunciamento of literary modernism and which constitutes the preliminary to Woolf ‘s ain most typical artistic accomplishment, was non a sudden revolutionist statement with no wider literary context. In ‘Some Contemporary Novelists ‘ ( Women ) published in 1920, in a chapter dedicated to Virginia Woolf ‘s authorship, Johnson discusses an emerging tendency among the female novelists of the early 20th century:
“ [ She ] has abandoned the old pragmatism… She is seeking, with passionate finding, for that Reality which is behind the stuff, the things that affair, religious things, ultimate Truth. And here she finds adult male an foreigner, willfully blind, intentionally apathetic. ”
This tendency he called ‘New Realism. ‘ The text refers chiefly to Dorothy Richardson and it is non clear whether or non Brimley Johnson had read Woolf ‘s ‘Modern Novels ‘ , but clearly provinces Richardson history of this ‘New Realism ‘ which hunts for a new vision or truth behind the head covering of masculine philistinism institucionalized in the Modern epoch. It besides states Woolf ‘s demand for a new literature. But for Woolf herself at this phase, this new literary vision pertains to a new coevals ; it is non gender-specific. She periodizes literary history by the reign of monarchs – religious Georgians against crassly mercenary Edwardians – non by the difference between sexes. Johnson ‘s text clearly illustrates the transiency that happened inside out Modernism, showing the most valuable analysis on Woolf and Richardson in their ain right.
Williams, Raymond. The Politics of Modernism: Against the New Conformists ( London, 1989 ) , ( The Found Era: London, 1972 ) , pp.45-53.
Womans authors were, for the most portion, with the exclusion of Virginia Woolf, omitted from the modernist canon constructed by literary critics in the 19 1950ss and 1960ss. Raymond Williams in his intriguing but good written paper comments that ‘ [ aˆ¦ ] there is still a extremist difference between the two coevalss: the fighting pioneers and the modernist constitution which consolidated their accomplishment. ‘ ( 51 ) He suggests that there was a distinguishable clip spread between the production of primary texts and academic and commercial institutional responses, although he does non look into the extent to which this spread was distributed in footings of the gender of authors. While adult females ‘s engagement in literary productiveness in the 19 mid-twentiess and mid-thirtiess increased, it did so in the context of extended societal and political argument about the rights of adult females to instruction ( including sexual instruction ) , to political power, and to gain a life of their ain and in which Woolf was far in front off. Literary production functioned as a model in which issues about the rights of adult females were foregrounded, at the same clip as they explored the additions and losingss experienced by adult females during that clip. On the other manus, the fictions of Virginia Woolf, in peculiar, picture the troubles of accomplishing a sense of female individuality, and beyond that, the impossibleness of happening any concluding, stable individuality for the topic. Her texts represent the frights, and retrace the debatable issues of being a adult female, every bit good as the pleasances of muliebrity and maleness, in such a manner as to convey into inquiry celebratory and empiricist theories of feminist unfavorable judgment. Williams discusses the insurgent female desires in which most of Woolf ‘s novels are per se focused in a clearly and good presented manner.
Abel, Elizabeth. Virginia Woolf and the Fictions of Psychoanalysis ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press: Chicago and London, 1993 ) , pp. 1-29.
Virginia Woolf is now normally thought of as a feminist writer. Yet the term ‘feminist ‘ has a figure of significances, and it is deserving sing in what ways the word applies to Woolf. In both her ain originative pattern and her essays, she shows herself to be a acute advocator of adult females as authors and of a adult females ‘s literary tradition. Her literary political relations are surely feminist. In footings of content, it is besides clear that Woolf asks inquiries about adult females ‘s art, the nature of female consciousness, and the agencies of literary presentation that must be developed to do the nature of a feminine consciousness seeable. Abel pinpoints Woolf ‘s involvement in the fictional forms narrative undertaking on which adult females were present. Unwraping Woolf ‘s discourse on gender and history, Abel contextualizes it with the thought of depth psychology in mid-1920s, opening up discourse over the capable much awaited. This peculiar chapter treats the advancement of psycho-analytic surveies, adult females ‘s place in England during 1920s and what is meant to be a adult female in such a society. It besides reveals Freud ‘s thought of the Oedipus composite and so forth. Connected with the thought that if the male author suffers self-consciousness as an facet of the general experience of modernness, with its disintegration of tradition, its disbelieving, even nihilistic testing of old holinesss and piousnesss, so clearly the adult female author ‘s sense of the unfairness of adult females ‘s place in society, with its enticements of resentment, denouncement, bitterness, reinforces the danger, Abel is researching what was Woolf ‘s 2nd dissatisfaction with the modernist texts and what is deserving reading. The chapter ( En ) Gendering History, is somewhat complex but precise in what modernism versus history and psychological science respect to.