The GC analysis results from the table shows that almost all the common FAMEs content are present in the micro algae biodiesel. The most common fatty acids of microalgae are Palmitic-(hexadecanoic-C16:0), Stearic-(octadecanoic-C18:0), Oleic (octadecenoic-C18:1), Linoleic-(octadecadienoic-C18:2) and Linolenic-(octadecatrienoic-C18:3) acids [Knothe, G.2009]. Higher oleic acid content decreases the Cold Filter Plugging Point (CPPF) for use in cold regions [Stournas et. Al 1995] and increases oxidative stability for longer storage [Knothe, G.2005]. So higher Oleic Acid content of Heterotrophic Chlorella Protothecoides Microalgae biodiesel indicates that it is most suitable good quality biodiesel for IC engines.
This research work deals with the oil extraction from chlorella protothecoides microalgae, conversion of this bio-oil into biodiesel by transesterification processs. And the performance study of diesel engine fuelled with microalgae methyl ester, microalgae methyl ester blend with diesel in different ratios and pure diesel. The results of research study are summerized and represented as follows.
The oil extraction process was carried out hexane as solvent with soxhlet apparatus.
The chlorella protothecoides microalgae oil yield obtained is 52%.
To produce microalgae methyl ester from microalgae oil, the transesterification process is carried out. The biodiesel conversion yield obtained is 92%
The peak pressure value of diesel is 4.13% higher than microalgae methylester.
The Experimental investigation is conducted on a single cylinder, 4 stroke, water cooled, stationary Kirloskar diesel engine with computerized test rig and exhaust gas analyzer. Rated power of the engine is 5.2 kW/ 7 hp at 1500 rpm. Test rig consists of two separate fuel tanks, one for diesel (D100) and the other for biodiesel (B100) with a fuel switching system.
Engine is coupled with an eddy current dynamometer to control engine torque. By varying excitation current to eddy current dynamometer engine speed and load are controlled. A piezoelectric pressure transducer is installed in the engine cylinder head to measure combustion pressure. The experiment was carried out at a steady state with different loads of 0.25 Kg, 3.75 Kg, 7.25 Kg, 10.75 Kg, 14.25Kg, and 17.75 Kg. using HCP B-100, HCP B-05, HCP B-10, HCP B-15, HCP B-20,& D-100 Initially the engine is run on diesel fuel and then switched over to blends under similar conditions.
Prior to each test, the instruments are carefully calibrated to reduce experimental error. The engine was run for 10 minutes with D100 at the start of each test to warm up the engine at partial load. The type of fuel to be tested was randomly selected. At each run, the gas analyser was calibrated by performing auto zero and reset. Sufficient time of about five minutes was given to the gas analyser to receive the sample from the engine exhaust and to be analysed before recording. The exhaust gas emission data of continuous five minutes were recorded and saved for each run of engine speed after it became relatively constant. The test condition was monitored to perform the entire test at relatively similar ambient conditions to avoid effects of the ambient condition on the results. The ambient conditions were measured and averaged: the ambient temperature was 38 ± 3 ?C, the relative humidity was 44 ± 8%.
A validation test is conducted using Diesel oil as fuel. The following step by step procedure is adopted for the test: