Computer architecture is concerned with the functional structure of hardware as seen through the eyes of the programmer. It also involves only those aspects of a computer that have a direct impact on the logical execution of the program. Computer organization this involves hardware details essentially transparent to the programmer. The computer architecture is the professional of adopting present day technology to the solution of current computing problems and of dreaming about the future,The computer architect designs the external specifications, gross data flow, and gross sequencing of a system or a shift of register.
These results illustrate how computer structure & architecture have different views but same goal towards the solving the problems facing society on economy level & educational.
That is to say structural principals of computer are an essential part of modern university computer science and electrical engineering programs. While computer architecture is receiving and will continue to receive special attention as novel architecture differing from the classic Von Neumann organization emerge as viable approaches to the problem of increasing computational speeds and cost-effectiveness of computer systems.
First we deal with issues pertinent to courses in which the main objective is to introduce students to fundamental material. Second, we consider a more specialized level of hardware treatment. Where interconnection and classification of more are highlighted. In this paper we present a conceptual viewpoint that a coherent and unified treatment of computer architecture. We believe that a computer architecture can be viewed as composed of 1) physical organization; 2) control and flow of information; and 3) representation, interpretation and transformation of information, and develop a framework for architecture based on this viewpoint. To show how to associate architecture concepts and innovations with these three components. We then develop architecture concepts that a system architect can use and verify that these concepts can be accommodated within our framework. Finally, we indicate how our hypothesis can lead to the concept of dynamic system architecture.
Interpretation of computer architecture & computer organization The computer architecture is the professional of adopting present day technology to the solution of current computing problems and of dreaming about the future according to Zvonko Vranesic says computer architecture is concerned with the functional structure of hardware as seen through the eyes of the programmer. However it also involves only those aspects of a computer that have a direct impact on the logical execution of the program. Computer organization involves hardware details essentially transparent to the programmer. These includes the control mechanism and associated signaling, bus interface, and the internal structure of the storage units. Moreover, computer organization involves interfacing details of related peripheral devices. It has been fairly common academic practices to emphasis on computer architecture than on computer organization. A further point: it is hardly appropriate to talk about significantly microprocessor architecture that are reflected in the number of distinct implementation models. On the contrary a framework of computer architecture a computer architecture are directly traceable to its multifunction nature. Since computer architecture can be viewed from different perspectives, each individual forsee’s own notion and interpretation. There are three components of architectures & architectural firstly; Physical organization; in addition; Control & flow of information; finally; Representation, interpretation & transformation of information. From thus components it helps the system be more efficiency, protection and data privacy on a software system.
On the other hand physical organization is a technological advanced archived in the past decade enable architects to propose many innovative physical organizations for computer systems, some of which may have already been used and put into practice. While physical organization may ne present during the early we also have few computer systems that exist. To begin with we have CDC 6600 Central Processor Organization; in second place we have ILLIAC IV; more over we have TI ASC Texas instruments Advanced Science Computer. That is to say the control of flow of information the aspect of control mechanisms and schemes used for controlling and directing the systems information flow. Besides the information processing capabilities of a computer system depend to a large extent on how the system interprets and represents the information. Also in this section we consider different type of representation, interpretation, and transformation of information that a computer may use.
Representation, and interpretation instructions, Is the information flow and reflect the structure and capabilities of the system. One of the principal duties of the computer architect is to develop a comprehensive instruction set which is simple to use but exploits the system resources to their fullest extent. Representation and interpretation data, Representation in a precise, formalized language of some facts or concepts, often numeric or alphabetic values, are also in a manner which can be manipulated by a computational method. Transformation (or Dynamic representation) of information, The representation of information can be static or dynamic. However, a computer may be used to determine dynamically the changes in the representation of information that are needed for user convenience, system efficiency, and privacy. Programs are usually represented at the user level in high level languages. They claim there several different approaches to teaching computer organization.
On the other hand instruction tend to be strongly opinionated about which is the best approach; in the following discussion we consider the relative merits of on what approach, namely, the descriptive approach, which relies closely related to real, commercially available machines. The major advantage is that to become familiar with some commercially available products, being clearly desirable now that practical aspects of university are being emphasized through digital system design, specially computer design, is still not a science is the traditional sense it is an art so optimal solution rarely exist. There for study of real design leads to a better appreciation of the trade involved. In addition to understand the architecture structures, student can gain some feeling for electronic and economic aspects as well as functionality, speed of operation or performance. Maintaining ability, and cost are basic criteria that can be properly discussed within the frame work of a real machine. The ability to gain experience and be acquainted structural concept and typically leads to insights into related side issues.Either it contains fairly extensive assembly languages (Hypothetical computers), Not only there is no single computer illustrates but also the desired concepts, on any computer that has some unappealing features. If a single machine is used, student can leave with the impression that no other viable machines exist. These difficulties can be overcome by drawing more than one computer architecture; eg: one may use the PDP-11 architecture as the basic frame work of discussion, illustrate input/output processor scheme from the IBM 370 channels. Discussion of commercially available architecture can be carried out to dangerous or extreme, general principal are totally masked by the details of particular. They claim that physical and control elements contribute to the desired objective to create new control paths among the physical resources of a computer system has been exploit since it is present in hardware programs it increase the system’s performance.The advantage of this feature is that the user is offered models of varying performance indices and storage capacities.Neither the disadvantage is that the models lose some of their performance in maintaining compatibility.
However the user sees the architecture of the system as the central processor consists of sixteen general registers and four floating point registers. The general registers can be used to hold operands or as index and base address registers. There is no one fixed memory organization for all the models. Models 155 and 165 provide 4K buffer storage systems in addition to their main storage units. The buffer and main storage are organized into rows and columns.As for this section we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of some architectural concepts. At first view they may appear to be totally unrelated to each other; however a little thought will reveal that each of these concepts can be categorized under one or a combination of the three components of architecture. To begin with array Organization- The array organization is very effective in exploiting parallelism when the characteristics of the problem to be solved match the physical structure.
Then the Pipeline Organization
– This organization consists of functional units arranged in a pipeline where each functional unit handles a particular task.
Finally Modular Organization
– This organization consists of independent functional units (capable of performing specialized tasks). An advantage of this type of organization is the enhanced performance obtainable by using overlap and distributed function computation. Now we briefly consider some of the problems and tradeoffs an architect faces in evolving an architecture. These considerations are discussed within the framework of the three components of architecture. Assume that the architect decides to make the computer system provide the capacity of ten processing units. In fact a computer user is becoming increasingly aware of the effect of architecture on system performance. This is to say they realizes that the array organization is ideal for solving relaxation problems, that the pipeline organization is effective in handling matrix and vector operations, and that stack processing makes it easier to compile and execute algorithims programs. Since no single architecture can satisfy the needs of all users, it has become desirable to have a computer system whose architecture can be defined and varied dynamically. To look at this another way computer design is an engineering endeavor which is subject to many practical constraints and scientifically pure goals are economically unfeasible dreams. It is probably best to accept this reality, at list for the time being, and make sure that we teach our students what present computers are really like, since ideal machine are still a long way to go to the next future generation of technology. We have also information tagging this is dynamic, interactive and full of information that a user metadata is define in the system. It is also basically a language machine suggesting tagging of data and address for identification for the machine to identify the specific information being process on the system.
According to S.S.Reddi he explains the emution function on a computer system which is a combination of hardware and software approach towards the modeling of physical behavior of one machine to another. The emulation is the main principle used to offer variable architectures to the user. But emulation is slow and inefficient and would defeat our purpose, which is to speed up computation with dynamic architecture. Using our three component approach to architecture, it is possible to create a system with dynamic organization. The user can specify the architecture he requires in terms of the three components, and the system will provides this architecture by introducing few changes in its control and data paths and by altering its representation and interpretation of information. The speed requirements that these changes be executed at hardware level.
The a system propose where it’s the possibility to structure a system resources as a pipeline, an array, or in any configuration, the user may want. Structuring is accomplished by dynamically establishing bus paths between the resources. This is to say physical element of architecture is ‘altered’ by suitable control of information flow. Similarly, to other components of architecture can be altered. For instance, information flow can be controlled to exhibit a stack or non stack structure depending on the program environment.By attaching tags to operands and interpreting them dynamically, we can obtain an architecture in which the third component is a variable.
To summarise both writers Zvonko Vranesic & S.S.Reddi had a very challenging views on framework architectural and computer organization on the impact to the society and especially in students and economically both insisted there is a reason to purse on the approach in computer courses the both had a different ideas on how this systems should be pursued on there own research and time.
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Using Teaching Computer Structure. (2019, Nov 16). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/using-teaching-computer-structure-essay