# Usage of Electrical Technology and Devices

Categories: DeviceTechnology

## Abstract

Many aspects of electrical technology usage, such as power, electrical machines, control, electronics, communication system and instrumentation are all based on electrical circuit theory. Therefore, the basic electric circuit theory is one of the most important aspect to look into for a brief analysis of the above-mentioned examples of applications. Most of these applications requires interconnection of electric devices. An interconnection is thus termed as electric circuit. This paper will provide an overview on basic electrical circuit analysis. What is the necessity to analyse the DC circuits using KCL and KVL?Let us first look into what each terminology suggests.

• Direct current (DC): it is defined as the constant flow of charges from a region of higher potential to lower potential. We analyse the electric circuit using the conventional current flow, the flow of positive charge. A direct current circuit is often referred as a circuit where the electric charges flows in single direction.
• KCL (Kirchhoff’s current law): This law states that for any junction in an electrical circuit, the totality of currents passing through a particular node(junction) is equivalent to the summation of currents exiting the node.

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• KVL (Kirchhoff’s voltage law): this law states that the directed potential differences(voltages) around any closed loop sums up to zero.

Moving on, let us note that Kirchhoff’s laws apply conservation of energy and conservation of electric charge to the DC circuit. If all resistor and emf values are known then the current through each resistor can be calculated because the specification of a complete set of independent equations satisfying the loop and the junction rules for any DC circuit includes as many equations as there are unknown currents and the equations may be solved simultaneously for these current in terms of resistor and emf values.

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In short, we can apply Kirchhoff’s laws to,Determine unknown values like current, voltage.Can be applied to any circuits which includes complex circuits/network.

Used in nodal and mesh analysis. They are useful in understanding the transfer of energy through an electric circuit. How is the power generated and reach our homes or the industries/ commercial zones?The electricity that is consumed by various locality is generated using numerous sources. One of the main sources of electricity making is by the combustion of fossil fuels. In recent days, technology has advanced and we are slowly replacing it with renewable sources of energy mainly the solar energy. Therefore, we can infer that some consumers generate their own required amount of electricity based on the best available technology and other communities purchase and the other part of its consumers tend to purchase the same form various electric power generators, which is more or less relatable to the DEWA (Dubai electricity and water authority), who supplies the required amount of electricity produced to its consumers at a price.

The produced electricity is transported to various localities over long distances using transmission lines or the distribution power lines. It is indeed very dangerous to transport very high voltage therefore we use high standing metal towers which carry electricity to long distant places. For home and commercial purposes, we don’t use high electric voltage. For home and commercial (business) uses, we need lower voltages. Therefore, to make this low voltage available to the households, we use transformers (step up or step down) to distribute the produced electricity to its consumers.Ria is an engineering student of First year. She is always curious to know about things. Her professor detailed about current and voltage. But still she is uncertain in understanding them both. Help her to understand the difference between AC and DC.

She also wants to know about the instruments /domestic appliances or machines that work on AC and DC. Support her with a tabulation citing the name of the instrument what you are coming across (minimum 6 no’s), Supply needed (AC /DC) rating of voltage and current, power in watts.Current: it is defined as the rate of flow of electrons.Voltage: it is defined as the force that pushes the electrons or charges AC is termed as alternating current and it suggests that the current varies with time. Here the flow of charges changes its direction. In DC circuits, the current flows in one direction.

### Device AC/DC Rating of voltage Power (watts)

• Samsung twin cooling refrigerator 500LAC 120V 780W
• Macbook Air 13.3 DC 14.5V 45W
• Philips salondry Compact (hairdryer) AC 220V 1000W
• HP deskjet 2540 series (printer) AC 100-240V, 300mA 45W
• Panasonic landline cordless DC 50-60V 3W
• Iphone 8 DC 14.5V at 2A 29W
• Cerrutti 1881 wrist watch DC 1.55V 0.006W

This table suggests that all appliances that plug in and run uses alternating current and these devices use an adaptor to convert the AC to DC. At the same time, all battery operated appliances use Direct current.