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The nomadic phone has rapidly developed from simple device to complex multimedia synergistic system. Because of nomadic phone engineerings ‘ development and the development of nomadic memory devices, mobile phone ‘s functionality has been extended to include digital camera, MP3 participant, location-based service and digital multimedia broadcast medium ( DMB ) system in recent old ages. Therefore, the nomadic phone has been defined as a common user contraption ( Klockar, Carr, Hedman, Johansson, & A ; Bengtsson, 2003 ) . As the development of maps and characteristics of nomadic phone, serviceability is an obvious characteristics of nomadic phones every bit good as usability rating is besides an of import activity for developing the well useable nomadic phone that should be structured throughout all the design life rhythm stages.
Usability rating is the indispensable facet of the application of nomadic interface because it can measure users ‘ feedbacks sing the nomadic interface application every bit good as it can convey a batch of benefits to the users. By virtuousness of usability rating, there is a manner to carry through the user demands and demands sing the nomadic application.
To find the serviceability of users achieved sing application of merchandise, it needs to mensurate the satisfaction and public presentation of users who work with the merchandise. ISO 9241-11 ( 1998 ) references that serviceability is an of import facet in the merchandises ‘ design because it is straight related to the extent to which the users of merchandises are able to work efficaciously, expeditiously and with satisfaction. Furthermore, the serviceability of the merchandises or applications may be developed by incorporating the characteristics and properties of cognizing the benefit of users in a punctilious context of usage.
ISO/IEC 9126-1 defines serviceability as “ the capableness of the package merchandise to be understood, learned, used and be attractive to the consumer, when used under specified conditions ” . This definition is fundamentally related with the merchandise of package but it be provided to the nomadic phones for sing specified characteristics for nomadic phones. Although serviceability is by and large concerned with the nomadic phones design attributes, it requires to be regarded with a developing belongings that is structured by complex interaction amongst the nomadic phone user interface, user and undertaking characteristics and other environment factors ( Jeongyun Heo, 2009 ) . Particularly, there is five properties in the serviceability: learnability, efficiency, memorability, mistakes, and user satisfaction. The usability rating is largely based on these usability issues.
The serviceability of MobiTOP application is evaluated based on the three user interfaces which are List, Map and AR. The chief intent of rating is to place how these three different user interfaces are utile for the users and how MobiTOP application is efficient for different users and different undertakings. The usability rating can place what users need, when they need and which user interfaces can supply user to be more utile and more satisfied. Furthermore, the usability rating can find whether MobiTOP application is easiness of usage and easy to larn for users or non. Therefore, the usability rating is of import for application development and rating is based on the undermentioned identified serviceability concepts including easiness of usage, efficiency, effectivity, satisfaction and learnability.
To measure how much user interfaces are easiness of usage for users, non merely adept users but besides novice users must be familiar with interfaces of nomadic application. Everyone should be able to utilize the application within the short period of clip once the application is introduced to the users ( Good, 1982 ) . Particularly, the application must be easy to retrieve the interaction otherwise the users may confound to utilize the application following clip. The application of MobiTOP must be executable for both novice users and adept users.
The rating of the application efficiency is based on the rate or velocity of users interact with system accurately and successfully to finish the specified undertaking within the specified clip. Sing the efficiency, serviceability will be developed by altering the interaction process so as to shorten the operation clip. Efficiency can besides place the ability of user to accomplish the complete undertaking with the specified clip. As the clip taken will based on the undertaking nature, it is executable to do direct efficiency informations comparings merely when the same undertaking is performed ( Bevan, 2006 ) . Furthermore, efficiency is measured as the average clip taken by the users who successfully achieve a end divided by the clip taken by an expert ( Bevan, 2006 ) . Therefore, the efficiency of the application is one of the of import facets in the usability rating.
ISO 9241-11 ( 1998 ) defines that effectivity is accuracy and completeness, in add-on, error-free completion of undertakings is of import in both concern and consumer applications. The factors of effectivity are the quality of solution and mistake rates. Effectiveness steps oriented toward the result of the user ‘s interaction with the system are deriving attending in usability rating ( Bevan, 1995 ) . To measure the effectivity of nomadic application, effectiveness step includes per centum of users frequence of successfully finishing executing the undertaking, per centum of ends clip to finish a undertaking evaluation graduated table for achieved ; undertakings completed per satisfaction and frequence of ailments completed undertakings ( ISO 9241-11,1998 ) .
Satisfaction which is the user ‘s comfort with positive attitudes towards the usage of the system and user ‘s satisfaction can be measured by attitude evaluation graduated tables ( Kirakowski & A ; Corbett, 1993 ) . ISO 9241-11 ( 1998 ) references that satisfaction ( defined as freedom from uncomfortableness and positive sentiments to the usage of the application ) is the users ‘ response to interaction with the application and satisfaction can be identified by subjective or nonsubjective steps. The rating of satisfaction is depended on how much users satisfy after they are interacting with the nomadic application interface and the interface of nomadic application can do users be pleased or satisfied.
The learnability of system interface is defined as the grade to which its interfaces help the novitiate users to utilize the utile undertakings of nomadic rapidly and better cognition in utilizing the interfaces of system ( Nielsen, 1993 ) . The learnability of complex system as the users interact with system “ efficient and error-free in short period ” so eventually the users are satisfied ( Linja-aho, 2006 ) . Learnability concerns the characteristics of the synergistic system that allows novitiate users to understand how to utilize it ab initio and so how to achieve maximum degree of public presentation ( Dix et al. , 2004 ) . It is the relaxation with which novitiate users can understand how to utilize the system ab initio and accomplish maximal public presentation. For learnability rating, application of nomadic interface is identified whether the application interface can supply the users easy to larn to utilize application or non.
For users based rating, users are invited to make the typical undertakings with nomadic application interface foremost meanwhile their behaviours are observed and recorded in order to place design defects that cause user mistakes or troubles. During these observations, the clip required to finish a undertaking, undertaking completion rates and figure and types of mistakes are recorded. The usability rating is based on the study consequences with qualitative and quantitative methods. These methods are constructed with 90 participants from different background in different topographic points. The study inquiries are concerned with the five properties of serviceability sing the three user interfaces ( List, Map and AR ) and the consequences are evaluated based on the serviceability issues which user interface is the most utile and easiness of usage for both novitiate and expert users.
Questionnaire for Usability Evaluation
Harmonizing to the definition of serviceability, that is concerned with the properties of the merchandise that make it apprehensible, learnable, easy to utilize and attractive, questionnaire is required to measure the serviceability of nomadic application interface. Based on the literature reappraisal of our paper, we constructed the questionnaires for usability rating and questionnaires are concerned with easiness of usage, mistake handling, efficiency, effectivity, satisfaction and learnability.
The usability rating questionnaire is divided into three different subdivisions. In the first subdivision, demographic information sing the participants ‘ information is mentioned such as background instruction, gender and organisation. Section 2 includes the general inquiries concerned with the use of nomadic phone application for illustration how frequently users use the nomadic phone to speak or to direct SMS and how frequently users use their nomadic phone to take exposure or picture. In add-on, the inquiries sing how much users are familiar with the MobiTOP application and the serviceability concept for MobiTOP application. The questionnaire for usability rating is following:
Questionnaire Section Angstrom
General inquiries concerned with nomadic phone use
Questionnaire Section B
General inquiries concerned with intent to utilize
Questionnaire Section C
Ease of usage sing
Questionnaire Section D
Mistake Handling regarded inquiries
Questionnaire Section E
Efficiency regarded inquiries
Questionnaire Section F
Effectiveness regarded inquiries
Questionnaire Section G
Satisfaction regarded inquiries
Questionnaire Section H
Learnability regarded inquiries
Each serviceability concept has different replies such as “ 1: strongly differ ” , “ 2: disagree ” , “ 3: impersonal ” , “ 4: agree ” , “ 5: strongly hold ” . Each questionnaire has four undertakings and the users need to execute the undertaking and each undertaking has two actions that are browse and hunt.
In subdivision 3, there are three subjective inquiries. The first inquiry of subdivision 3 is sing the user interface and users need to name the characteristics they satisfied. Furthermore, the 2nd inquiry of subdivision 3 is that users need to name the characteristics concerned with the user interface and application they are non satisfied. The 3rd inquiry is the users need to name the suggested development sing the user interface of nomadic application ( Please refer to Appendix 1 ) .
Background of MobiTOP Application
MobiTOP application uses the Google Open Source Android platform to run its application and it provides the collaborative note informations and allows the users to utilize the three different MobiTOP application user interfaces which are List, Map and Augmented Reality ( AR ) . MobiTOP application interfaces allow the users modify the coveted scope ( 1km to 10km ) and the note figure ( e.g 10 to 50 ) shown in each user interface of MobiTOP application.
Although the three user interfaces illustrate the same user needed information, they show the information by different ways. For illustration, if user finds the location by map application, MobiTOP shows the user required information by map. Our paper represents about how we evaluate the three different user interfaces of MobiTOP application based on the study consequences and we discuss the hereafter works for application. We show the screenshot of MobiTOP user interfaces ( Map, List and AR ) in Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4 severally.
For Map Interface, MobiTOP can bespeak the users the current location of nomadic phone and can observe the detector of GSP. In map interface application, user can happen the notes by utilizing two ways ( hunt and browse ) . MobiTOP shows the notes on the screen and first user can seek the needed location by touching it on the map. MobiTOP provides the user needed information as message box. If user wants to acquire more information or item information, user can snap “ position item ” box on the map interface. There is exposures, distance from current location to finish, tickets and location description in the elaborate information. In fact, map interface can supply the users to acquire the elaborate information easy and rapidly.
For List Interface, MobiTOP shows the user required information as list so that the loading clip of list interface is faster than the loading clip of map interface. MobiTOP already displays the list of notes one after another based on the current location. User can easy to happen the needed finish or information by shoping the note or filtrating based on the tags words. List interface can merely expose the text-based information.
For Augmented Reality ( AR ) Interface, users can see their current location as existent position and they can happen the needed note information easy every bit good. The augmented world ( AR ) in MobiTOP application allows the users to see the environing countries of current location by utilizing the nomadic phone camera and overlays the laden information on this position. The end of Augmented Reality is to add information and significance to a existent object or topographic point. The UI in the AR has the helpful radio detection and ranging to demo 360A° position of notes ‘ locations. The chief advantage of utilizing AR interface is that the users can seek the way of their finish location since the notes are shown on the screen that is based on the current location of users.
MobiTOP application provides above the three different user interfaces ( List, Map and AR ) intend to the on-line existent clip seeking and shoping map to happen the note information. For map interface, MobiTOP can besides back up offline version and users are allowed to lade notes from anyplace in a map. Furthermore, the characteristic of filter notes in the MobiTOP utilizing appropriate keywords is available for hunt map in three user interfaces. The chief intent of MobiTOP application is that it provides the users to acquire the needed note information easy and rapidly every bit good as users do non necessitate to pass long clip to acquire their required information.
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