With the aim of dealing with the theoretical, methodological and realistic features of doing archaeology in the contemporary cities of the North America, a novel field of archaeology has come into view over the last 20 years called urban archaeology (Dickens, 1982). Whilst archaeologists have a long pact with the archaeology of cities particularly, the primitive early development of urbanism, industrial cities were long measured too new to be useful to archaeologists.
Archaeology was made in modern cities pre-ceding to initiation of a proper discipline of urban archaeology, but it was mainly limited to investigating antique relics and features that were met by urban development projects. Archaeologist Bill Iseminger while in the Illinois prairie, points out outline of a 40-acre majestic plaza that was the Times Square of an outlying American past. (Staski, 1987) A thousand years ago “this was the largest city in America north of Mexico,” he says.
“Between 10,000 and 20,000 people lived here” before the complex was abandoned under strange conditions earlier to 1400. (Savoye, 2000) But with archaeologists now revealing main parts of the Cahokia Mounds here, the dig has imprisoned public interest as a porthole into America’s heartland capital of the first millennium. “The more I study their culture, the more I’m convinced they were just like us,” says Brad Koldehoff, a University of Illinois archaeologist. (Staski, 1987) Though this main Cahokian site is a secluded oasis nearly eight miles east of St.
Louis the primeval metropolitan area spread out in all directions, covering some 255 sq miles of Mississippi flood plain. Lately, Mr. Koldehoff has been leading an archaeological excavation consented by law as a product of excavator job on a new drainage system To Cahokian archaeologists, even soil articulates quantities. The Mississippians – the standard name given to Indians that lived beside the river but left no written evidence of their individuality – not only moved earth to build mountains, they moved it to even out swales for table-flat plazas.
And that is exactly what Koldehoff and his team is seeing, confirming earlier theories that a plaza covered the area a millennium ago. “It’s unreal sometimes, being there alongside one of the busiest interstates in the country, your mind 1,000 years away,” he says. “You uncover an old piece of ceramic pipe or a shirt, and then you look up and see the skyscrapers of St. Louis across the river. ” (Savoye, 2000) Contrasted with ancient Egypt or Incan and Mayan cultures, where stone structures and carvings accept a surfeit of clues about prehistoric ways, Cahokia defers its secrets reluctantly.
Cahokia relied on moderately fast-weakening wood for building. That, accompanied by reasonably wet weather circumstances that obliterate relics such as leather goods, makes the task of a Cahokia archaeologist very hard. What archaeologists do make out about the Cahokians’ ruin is rather worrying. After an actually vivacious growth era, a self-protective fortification’s was built around the outskirts of the plaza. Separate archaeological efforts have exposed proof of lethal raids on societies in remote areas.
As the decades developed, the wood intended for houses and reconstruction of the walls tapered in diameter. Archaeologists propose that this points to extensive deforestation. There may have been an increase consequence, in which deforestation led to failure of fuel and game and also silted streams, thus lessening fish counts and causing flooding. How harsh these troubles were and whether they added to pressure on the political system is unidentified.
The only thing archaeologists are certain of, founded on present proof are that Cahokia appears to have died away sooner than ended suddenly in a natural disaster or human catastrophe. Though, the Cahokian society ended, though, it lived on for hundreds of years as a sophisticated and possibly varied culture. In isolation, historians say, it provides an important picture of a civilization that has often been labeled as not-so-noble savages in film and fiction (Buchanan, 1978).
Buchanan, R. A.1978, Industrial Archaeology: Retrospect and Prospect. In Historical Archaeology: A Guide to Substantive and Theoretical Contributions, edited by R. L. Schuyler, pp. 53-56. Baywood, Farmingdale, New York Dickens, R. S. Jr. 1982 Archaeology of Urban America. Academic Press, New York. Savoye, Craig, 2000, From urban dirt, ancient city emerges. Christian Science Monitor, 08827729, Vol. 92, Issue 33 Staski, E. (editor) 1987, Living in Cities: Current Research in Urban Archaeology. Society for Historical Archaeology, Special Publication Series, Number 5.