Uppsala Model Essay
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One of most significant skill of management organisation is leadership. Companies cannot be successful without good leader. This assignment considers the case study of NHS management which have problems in different areas. Doctors have many problems with managers and another section that manual workers have problems with their job. From the cases study, we can encounter the management in the UK hospital is not good enough. we also apply theories to look for a solution. This assignment will illustrate the problems of two groups of employees in the UK hospital and apply path-goal theory, participatory theory and theories X and Y to help look for a solution for particular problems.
This case study is in UK hospital. Employees have problems with their job and colleagues. In this case, most important concern for doctors are patients. They do not mind to spent money to help patients but they have several problems with managers because the managers need them to save budget for the hospital and managers disagree with doctor decisions about patient care.
Doctors have to do admin work such as records for patient which is not their job and also manager asked them to do things not related to medical duties. For example: public relations, making hospital good image and advertisement. Manual workers also have problems with their job in the hospital because manager cut budget for cleaning and hygiene so hospital is at risk of disease. Managers did not set central control for the manual workers so they do not know the direction of work and their job is not suitable. Communications and instructions from doctor and nurses are not clear. The path-goal theory of leadership was developed to describe the way that leaders support and encourage their employees. Leadership style in the path-goal theory can be different by personal trait and the situation in the workplace. This leader has to remove obstacles and clarify the direction for subordinates and persuade the follower by reward or promotion (House, 1971).
The participatory theory of leadership was developed to help manager to make a decision when they have to look for solutions for a particular problem when they should involve employees. This theory recommends that before managers making a decision, they needed to ask themselves several questions such as what is the problems structure (Vroom and Yetton, 1973). The last one is theories X and Y which demonstrate the potential for leadership in two opposite side of continuum. Theory X managers incline to believe that people work because they need to survive but they have an inherent dislike of work. It is extremes at opposite with theory Y managers believe that people work as natural (Douglas McGregor, 1960). The problems in the UK hospital can be improved by good leaders. House (1971) illustrates that leaders have to help subordinates to achieve a goal by remove obstacles or provide a direction for them.
He explained that subordinates who are highly skilled or educated. In this case study, it relate to the doctors. They may dislike the managers to inform them what they have to do because they know their duties and they know exactly how to treat their patients. They may not care about money if it is good for patients. The managers should remove obstacles for the doctors such the doctors have to do paper works which is not their job. Managers should place this paper works to right person that doctors can better do their job. On the other hand, the managers should provide a control for manual workers that they are less skilled and prefer more command because they need to know direction of their work and how much money or bonus they earn. So they will complete their task effectively. This theory shows that the managers have to face the problem in different issue for different subordinates (House, 1971).
Vroom and Yetton (1973) demonstrate a model to help manager to make a decision when they need to solve a problem. At first managers needed to ask themselves several questions such as what is the problem structure. The answers are then possible to choose a leadership style from the list. In this case study, the managers of UK hospital can apply Autocratic II (AII) for manual worker problems that managers make a decision and solve problems by themselves but receive information from manual workers. Mainly problem is manual worker role. Managers should inform and control them. For the doctors, managers can apply Group participation (G) that managers and their subordinates together analyse a problem and look for a solution. Managers have to co-ordinates with doctors to solve all the problems together. For example, the doctors have responsibility to their patient. Sometime doctors have to spend a lot of money to help their patients which is opposite with the managers because they need to save money for the hospital. In this point, managers and doctor have to talk together and decide the solution.
By this way, they will be happy to work together (Vroom and Yetton, 1973). According to McGregor, theories X and Y can also apply to both cases study as well. These managers believe that employees are indolent, prefer command and they will escape their duties so managers have to be very strict and authoritarian with their employees. Manual worker case study is suitable to be applied with theory X. Managers should control, strict and be very directive with the workers such as give them an exactly schedule to work and also check what they have done. These ways will improve cleaning-hygiene in the hospital. In contrast, case study of the doctors can apply theory Y that this theory is more optimistic view with human nature which believes people see work as a natural phenomenon.
They recognize and seek responsibility. Managers believe that subordinates can derive sympathy and will work hard under the right circumstances. Managers will work co-operatively with subordinates. The managers of the UK hospital can apply this theory for the doctors. Managers should understand the doctors’ role and responsibility. Instead of informing the doctors, managers should share the ideas with them and make the doctors feel comfortable to express their ideas. It will produce good culture in the hospital and make the doctors feel relax and happy to work.
It is very important that managers should listen to the doctor feedback such as how many hours it is suitable for them to work and how to save money for the hospital. (McGregor, 1960). In conclusion, these cases study in UK hospital can be improved by good leaders or managers. They have to learn how to face particular problems because each problem has different solution. It is very important to understand nature of their subordinates. In this case study, we can see different solutions that managers should apply for doctors and manual workers problems which depend on the situation, level of skill and nature of their subordinates.
Hanagan, T, 2002. Management Leadership, in Management: Concepts And Practices, Harlow: Pearson Education, pp 36-68