– A composer, a radical, and a philosopher
– 1940s: Experimentation (electronics, toy piano, etc…)
– 1950s: Chance music (“aleatoric” or “aleatory” music)
– Williams Mix: 192 page score of random sounds
– 4’33”: silence
– Philomel (1964): one of the first compositions with a synthesizer and has Bethany Beardsley singing soprano. Based on the Greek myth of Philomela, who has no voice and becomes a nightingale
– String Quartet No. 1 1950-1951
– Composed while spending a year in the Arizona desert
– Based on the 1931 play Green Grow the Lilacs.
– It builds on Show Boat as a “book musical,” which weaves the songs smoothly into the plot. It also uses dramatic and musical motives throughout—very effective.
– It evokes a range of emotions from the audience, not simply laughter.
– There is a “dream ballet” by Agnes de Mille
late in Act I.
– It ran for over 2,000 performances.
– Cole Porter, composer / lyricist; this was a comeback for him; he had written hit musicals in the ’30s.
– He was best known for his clever lyrics and “sassy” music.
– Based on Shakespeare, The Taming of the Shrew
– A play within a play
– Ran for 1,000+ performances: Porter’s biggest hit!
– a “crossover” composer and a conductor
– “Somewhere” ballet
– A Neo-Romanticist
– Ancient Voices of Children “The Child Is Finding His Voice”
– minimalism (along with other Americans Steve Reich and Terry Riley)
– Einstein on the Beach
– c 5 hours long, with no intermission
– Robert Wilson wanted the audience to be free to enter and leave as they wished.
– A plotless libretto
– Consists of solfege syllables, numbers, and short segments of poetry or text developing on the themes of general relativity, nuclear weapons, science and AM radio
– 9 connected 20-min. scenes separated by what Wilson
calls knee plays
– The knees created the time needed to change the scenery of Wilson’s seven sets, which were carefully designed to interplay with the music.
– An “orchestra” of soprano saxophone, electronic organ,
flute, bass clarinet, alto saxophone, and one or two
additional keyboards. On stage appear various soloists,
two choruses (fourteen people and six people), dancers
and four actors.
– a very promising composer of opera
– Heads the composition program at Brooklyn College
– “Oh Yemanja” (Mother’s Prayer)
– Yemanje: On Jan. 1, Brazilians celebrate the feast of this ocean goddess from Africa. In Rio, over a million people dress in white and wade in the ocean at dusk to pay homage to her.
– Played with Art Blakey, who taught him that “jazz is democracy”
– Built his own band and toured (120 gigs/yr. for 10 yrs)
– Also composed; some of his works are huge in size—e.g., All Rise, with the New York Philharmonic (conducted by Kurt Masur), the Morgan State University Choir, and the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra
– Also cofounded “Jazz at Lincoln Center” (1987)
– Became the first jazz musician ever to win the Pulitzer Prize for Music for his epic oratorio Blood on the Fields (1997)
– Typical instruments: banjo (5-string), guitar (the rhythm instrument), fiddle, mandolin, dobro , and bass.
– Additional instruments: spoons, bones, washboards, harmonica, even accordion
– Fast tempo and high-pitched singing
– If the song permits, everyone with an instrument capable of soloing takes a turn.
– Named for Bill Monroe’s “Bluegrass Boys,” it thrived after WWII
– A “driving, cranked-up version” in a new style of Latin rock (associated with musicians like Santana),
– Adds electric guitar, Hammond organ, and a rock drum kit to the instrumentation and drops the original brass section.
– The guitar solos and an organ solo are rooted in rock and the blues but also contain licks similar to those of the original arrangement.
– Santana’s rendition appears in the Coen Brothers movie The Big Lebowski.
– virtuosic jazz
– song in a 1940s broadway musical
– song in a 1950s broadway musical
– Song in a 1980s broadway musical
– chance music
– mixed electronic and live music
– song cycle for mezzo-soprano and chamber ensemble
– country music by a woman
– Bluegrass music
– minimalist “portrait opera”
– opera based on an African-Brazilian myth
– work for choirs, orchestra, and live and recorded street sounds
– Latin Rock
– Rap featuring the first synthesized “instrumental” background; also considered the first political rap recording
– Chicago gospel music
– concert work that depicts a Southern Black church worship service
– Virtuosic jazz/rock
– Original song from a current rockstar
– Chamber work referring to the Navajo rugs that have the figures of the Yei, Navajo deities, woven in. References some Navajo melodies