Uniform Crime Report (FBI) Essay
Uniform Crime Report (FBI)
Often people wonder how do we know so much about certain types of crimes and what their impact is on society. The Uniform Crime Report put out by the FBI every year, has two major categories that does not cover all crimes but does give us statistics on the crimes that are committed in each of these categories. The Uniform Crime Report has two major categories, which include Violent personal crimes and Property crimes. Each category has four crimes that are related to that category. Violent personal crimes consist of the following; Murder/Manslaughter, Aggravated Assault, Rape, and Robbery. The next category is the Property crimes, which consist of Burglary, Larceny/Theft, Motor Vehicle Theft, and Arson.
For each crime there are statistics such as clearance rates for each crimes. The FBI also needs to know which crime is the most reported and which crime happens the most often. The FBI gathers information from people to see what kind of crimes have happened in their area. Then when all the information is gathered from the public they move to the police stations to see what kinds of numbers they have for that year. They want to see if the numbers that the police have in their books co inside with the numbers that they have received from the public. When all of that information has been gathered they use it to form the Uniform Crime Report to see what crimes have made an increase or a decrease though out the year.
Violent Person crimes are the crimes that are committed that directly affect the individual that the crime is happening to. In most cases the victim becomes seriously injured or killed while this crime is taking place. However the number of violent crimes reported to law enforcement has remained unchanged from a year ago, with approximately 1.4 million violent crimes reported. Compared to the 1999 figures, the 2000 violent crime figures declined .01 percent overall in the United States. However, violent crimes in cities with the population greater than 100,000 people fell 0.4 percent. The weapons that are used to commit violent crimes are what are called “personal weapons” such as hands fists feet, etc. These were used in 31.5 percent of all murders, robberies and aggravated assaults in 2000.
Other dangerous weapons were used in 27.9 percent of all violent crimes. Firearms were used in 25.6 percent of all violent crimes and knives or cutting tools were used in 15.0 percent. For all the violent crimes the clearance rate was 47.5 percent in the year 2000. Of the crimes that were cleared 63.1 percent of them were murders and 56.9 percent were aggravated assaults that were cleared. Of the estimated 625,132 persons arrested for violent crimes in 2000, 82.6 percent were males, 84.1 percent were adults, and 59.9 percent were white. People less than twenty-five years of age made up 44.4 percent of all violent crime arrestees (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice).
Murder/Manslaughter is the willful (nonnegligent) killing of one human being by another. The classification of this offence, as for all other Crime Index offences, is based solely on police investigation as opposed to the determination of a court, medical examiner, coroner, jury or other judicial body. Not included in the count for this offence classification are deaths caused by negligence, suicide or accident; justifiable homicides; and attempts to murder or assaults to murder, which are scored as aggravated assaults. In the year 2000 the number of offences were 15,517 at a rate per 1000,00 inhabitants. This rate has remained virtually unchanged from the year 1999. By region 44.0 percent of murders occurred in the south the country’s most populous region. Murders in the Midwest comprised 21.2 percent of the total; the West, 21.0 percent; and the Northeast 13.9 percent. Two of the Nation’s four regions showed an increase in the number of murders when 2000 data are compared to 1999.
The South and the Northeast each recorded increases of 2.4 percent, and the West and Midwest showed decreases of 3.4 and 2.9 percent. The volume of monthly occurrences for 2000 murder was committed most frequently in the month of July and least often in the month of February. The national murder rate for 2000, down 3.1 percent from the 1999 rate, was the lowest since 1965, 5.5 murders per 100,00 inhabitants. Trends for 5 and 10 years show that the 2000 rate was 25.6 percent lower than in 1996 and 43.7 percent lower than in 1991. The west had a decrease of 6.5 per cent; the Midwest, 4.7 percent; the Northwest, 1.6 percent; and the South, 1.5 percent. According to 2000 supplemental homicide data, males comprised 76.0 percent of the murder victim total. By age, the greatest percentage of victims, 89.7 percent were people at the age of 18 or older. Of all victims, 45.1 percent were 20 to 34 years old. Of the victims for whom race was known, 49.0 percent were white, 48.5 percent were black, and persons of other races accounted for the remaining 2.5 percent.
Regarding offender data, homicide figures were available for 14,697 murder offenders in 2000 with males accounting for 90.2 percent of those for whom gender was known. Of the murder offenders for whom age was known, 91.3 percent were people at the age of 18 or older. Of all offenders, 69.1 percent were people aged 17 through 34. African Americas accounted for 51.4 percent of those offenders for whom race was known, whites for 46.1 percent, and persons of other races for the remainder. Based on homicide data, the racial correlation of murder victims to murder offenders is usually interracial. Figures based on one-victim/one offender incidents in 2000 indicate that 93.7 percent of African American murder victims were killed by African American offenders, and 86.2 percent if white murder victims were slain by white offenders. Data also reveled that most males were most often murdered by males in 2000. The data also shows that male offenders murdered 90.8 percent of female victims. In 2000 firearms were used in 65.6 percent of all murders, making firearms the most frequently used weapon in the crime of murder.
By firearm type, handguns accounted for 51.7 percent of the murder total; shotguns, 3.6 percent; rifles, 3.1 percent; and other or unknown types of firearms, another 7.3 percent. Knives or cutting instruments were used in 13.5 percent of murders; personal weapons (hands, fists, feet, etc) in 7.0 percent; blunt objects (clubs, hammers, etc.) in 4.7 percent; and other dangerous weapons (poison, explosives, etc.) in the remainder. In 2000 the relationship between victim and offender was 44.3 percent of all murder victims knew their offenders: 30.9 percent of victims were acquainted with their assailants and 3.4 percent were related to them. Husband or boyfriends murdered 33.0 percent of female victims, and wives or girlfriends killed 3.2 percent of male victims. 13 percent of all murder victims were slain by strangers. Relationship was not known for 42.6 percent of the murders. Arguments were the circumstance attributed to 29.4 percent of the murders in 2000 (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice).
Aggravated assault is an unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury. This type of assault is usually accompanied by the use of a weapon or by means likely to produce death or great bodily harm. Attempts are included since it is not necessary that an injury result when a gun, knife, or other weapon is used which could and probably would result in serious person injury if the crime were successfully completed. The 2000 estimated total of 910,744 aggravated assaults, represented a 0.1-percent decrease from 1999 data for this offence. Aggravated assault comprised 63.9 percent if all violent crimes in 2000. The Midwest has a 2.1 percent decline in reported aggravated assaults and the Northeast a 0.5 percent decrease. However volumes rose 0.9 percent in the West and 0.4 percent in the South. The highest number of aggravated assaults, according to 2000 monthly figures, took place in May, with 9.3 percent of the total reported.
The fewest incidents occurred in February, November, and December, with 7.5 percent of the total cases recorded for each of those months. Aggravated assaults occurred in metropolitan areas at a rate of 349.2 per 100,000 inhabitants, somewhat higher than the national average. Cities outside metropolitan areas experienced a rate of 302.5 and rural counties a rate of 167.8. Blunt objects or other dangerous weapons accounted for 35.9 percent of the weapons used in aggravated assaults in 2000.
Personal weapons were used in 28.0 percent of aggravated assaults. Firearms were used in 18.1 percent, and knives or other cutting instruments were used in 18.0 percent. Aggravated assaults using firearms decreased 1.3 percent form 1999 to 2000 figures. Aggravated assaults with knives or other cutting instruments and those with personal weapons showed virtually no change. However those committed with blunt objects or other dangerous weapons increased 1.7 percent (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice).
Forcible Rape, as defined in the Uniform Crime Reporting Program, is the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Assaults or attempts to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included; however statutory rape (without force) and other sex offences are excluded. The estimated 90,186 forcible rapes of females nation wide in 2000 represented the first increase in this crime since 1992. The greatest volume of rapes, 38.0 percent was reported in the most populous area of the nation, the South. Twenty-five percent of rapes were reported in the Midwest, 23.8 percent in the West, and 13.2 percent in the Northeast. From 1999 to 2000 forcible rapes increased 3.5 percent in the West, 1.9 percent in the Northeast, and 1.6 percent in the Midwest. The South showed a drop of 1.5 percent (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice).
According to the Department of Justice, somewhere in America a woman is raped every two minutes. In America 2/3 of all rape victims are under the age of 18. Twenty-nine percent of female victims reported that the offender was a stranger. About 81 percent of rape victims are white, 18 percent are black, and 1 percent are of other races. The relationship of the victim to the offender is as follows: acquaintance/friend made up 55.2 percent of forcible rapes. And unknown party made up 13.2 percent, family relationship 11.8 percent, other 9.0 percent, stranger 8.1 percent, and neighbor made up 2.6 percent of all forcible rapes. The most forcible rapes happen in both the months of July and August.
These two months have the highest incident rates than any other month (Federal Statistics Rape Response & Crime Victim Center, Inc). Rapes by force accounted for 89.5 percent of rapes reported in 2000. The remaining 10.5 percent were accounted for by attempts or assaults to commit forcible rape. Compared to 1999, the volume of rapes by force in 2000 increased 1.8 percent. A 5.0 percent decrease in attempts to rape was noted nationwide. The Uniform Crime Report only considers rape victims as females, however there are male rape cases that occur but are not counted in this report, because the number is not that high (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice).
Robbery is the taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or person by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear. The 2000 estimated national total of 407,842 robberies is 0.4 percent lower than the 1999 figures, and it is the lowest estimated in 27 years. Cities across the nation also experienced a 0.4 percent decline in the number of robberies. The largest drop, 2.9 percent was seen in the nations largest cities, those with more than 1 million people. Suburban counties registered a decline of 2.3 percent. On the other hand, the nation’s smallest cities, those with fewer than 100,000 populations saw a 3.1 percent in crease in robberies. In the nation’s regions, 37.4 percent of the estimated robberies occurred in the most heavily populated Southern Region.
The Western, Northeastern, and Midwestern Regions recorded 22.0 percent, 20.5 percent, and 20.0 percent. For 2000, the rats declined 8.2 percent in the Northeast, 2.6 percent in the South, 2.4 percent in the West and 1.5 percent in the Midwest. The highest number of robberies during the year 2000 occurred in October and the lowest number occurred in February. During 2000, robbers stole more than $477 million from their victims. The average dollar loss, $1,170, was an increase from the $1,077 average calculated for 1999. Monetary losses ranged from an average of $544 taken during robberies of convenience stores to $4,437, the average stolen during bank robberies. The victims of robberies often suffer person injuries, the impact of which may be immeasurable.
Computing the dollar losses, however, does offer a means by which to measure one of the impacts of this violent crime. Robberies of financial establishments and commercial businesses, accounting for 25.3 percent of total robberies, increased 0.3 percent over the 1999 figure. However, robberies on the streets and highways, which made up 49 percent of all robberies in 1999 accounted for only 46 percent of the total offences in 2000, a decline of 3.6 percent. Robberies of residences remained relatively unchanged from 1999 figures at 12.2 percent of all robberies. Offenders in 2000 relied almost equally on firearms (49.0 percent) and strong-armed tactics (40.4 percent) to rob their victims. Other dangerous weapons were used in 10.3 percent and knives or other cutting instruments were used in 8.4 percent of robberies (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice).
Property crime includes the offences of burglary, larceny/theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. The object of the theft type offences is the taking of money or property, but there is no force or threat of force against the victim. Arson is included since it involves the destruction of property; its victims may be subjected to force. In, 2000, the estimated property crime total (10.2 million offences) decreased 0.3 percent from 1999. The most populated regions, the South recorded 41.0 percent of all property crimes. The West accounted for 23.0 percent of the total. The Midwest recorded 22.2 percent of the property crimes, and 13.8 percent occurred in the Northeast. When comparing property crime volumes of 1999 and 2000, the West reported a 1.0 percent increase and the other regions recorded decreases of 2.0 percent in the Northeast, 0.6 percent decrease and in the Midwest, and 0.2 percent in the South.
The greatest number of property crimes in 2000 took place in August, while the fewest occurred in February. In the nation’s cities, property crime rates were 4,419.6 per 100,000 people. In suburban counties the rate was 2,682.8. In rural counties, the rate was 1.714.9. More than $15.9 billion was estimated total dollar value of Property stolen in 2000. The average loss per offence was $1,562, a decrease from the average loss of $1,624 in 1999. Larceny theft constituted 68.4 percent of all property crimes in 2000. Burglary accounted for 20.1 percent of property crimes, and motor vehicle thefts comprised the remaining 11.4 percent. A total of 11,903 law enforcement agencies reported 68,756 arsons in 2000. The average dollar loss due to reported arson was $11,042 (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice).
The Uniform Crime report defines burglary as the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft. The use of force to gain entry is not required to classify an offence as burglary. The number of burglary is estimated 2,049,946 offences nationwide. The South, the nations most populous region, recorded the highest burglary volume, 44.2 percent. The West followed with 22.5 percent of the nation’s burglaries, the Midwest with 20.8 percent, and the Northeast with 12.5 percent. Compared to the 1999 national volume, burglary declined 2.4 percent in 2000. By community type, suburban counties experienced the greatest decline, 4.6 percent. Rural counties showed a 0.9 percent decrease in burglary volumes between 1999 and 2000. Collectively, the nation’s cites showed a decline of 2.2 percent burglary volume. National offence rates for burglary in 2000 728.4 offences per 100,000 people were the lowest in more than three years. Monthly figures for 2000 revealed that the greatest number of burglaries occurred in July and August, and the lowest volume occurred during the month of February.
Forcible entry was involved in 63.7 percent of all burglaries in 2000, unlawful entries (without force) made up 29.5 percent, and the remaining 6.8 percent were forcible entry attempts. In 2000, 2 of every 3 burglaries were residential in nature. Offences for which time of occurrence was reported showed that burglaries occurred more commonly during the daytime, 54.5 percent, than at night, 45.5 percent. Burglaries of residences occurred more frequently during the daytime, 60.7 percent, and burglaries of nonresidences occurred more frequently at night 57.7 percent. Victims experienced an estimated loss of nearly $3 billion in 2000. The average dollar loss per burglary was $1,462. For residential offences, the average loss was reported at $1,381 and for nonresidential burglaries at $1,615. Residential burglary volumes declined in 2000, down 3.9 percent from 1999 figures, and nonresidential burglary volumes increased 0.3 percent over the pervious year’s numbers (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice).
Larceny/Theft is unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another. It includes crimes such as shoplifting, pocket picking, purse snatching, bicycle theft, etc., in which no force, violence, or fraud occurs. In the uniform Crime Report, this crime category does not include embezzlement, confidence games, forgery, and worthless checks. Estimated at nearly 7 million offences in 2000, larceny theft made up 60 percent of the Crime index total and 68.4 percent of the property crime total. Larceny/Theft occurred most often in the month of August and the least often in the month of February. The South the Nation’s most populous region, counted for 40.9 percent of the larceny/theft total in 2000. The Midwest accounted for 22.9 percent of the total, the West recorded 22.2 percent, and the Northeast 14.0 percent. Two of the Nation’s four geographic regions recorded increases in larceny/theft in 2000. The South reported a 0.6 percent increase, and the West a 0.2 percent increase.
The Midwest reported no change from the previous year, and the Northeast reported a 0.9 percent decline in larceny/thefts. In 2000, the average value of property stolen as a result of larceny/theft was $735, down from the 1999 value of $913. The loss to victim, when applying the average value to the estimated number of larceny/thefts nationally, was over 5.1 billion for the year. Losses over $200 accounted for 38.9 percent of reported larceny/thefts, and losses under $50 comprised 37.7 percent. The remaining 23.4 percent involved losses ranging from $50 to $200. By type of larceny/theft, losses of goods and property reported stolen as a result of thefts from buildings average $1,176; thefts from coin operated machines averaged $500.00. Pick pocketing resulted in an average loss of $408; and purse snatching, $356. Thefts of bicycles resulted in an average loss of $276 and losses from shoplifting averaged $181. Shoplifting made up 13.8 percent of larceny/thefts and thefts from buildings, 13.1 percent. The remainder of larceny/thefts was attributed to pocket picking, purse snatching, bicycle thefts, thefts from coin-operated machines, and all other types of larceny/thefts (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice).
Defined as the theft or attempting theft of a motor vehicle this offence category includes the stealing of automobiles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, motorscooters, snowmobiles, etc. The definition excludes the taking of motor vehicle for temporary use by those persons having lawful access. For the first time since 1990, the number of motor vehicle thefts reported in the U.S increased from the previous year’s figures as the volume of thefts in 2000 showed a 1.2 percent increase over 1999 total. Of the nearly 1.2 million estimated motor vehicle thefts, the West recorded the largest increase at 7.1 percent. Motor vehicle thefts increased in the Midwest by 0.9 percent. The Northeast reported the largest decrease with a 2.9 percent decline. In the South motor vehicle thefts were down 1.3 percent.
For every 100,000 people living metropolitan areas 479.9 motor vehicle thefts were reported in 2000. In cities outside metropolitan areas, 199.2 motor vehicle thefts were reported per 100,000 people. In rural counties 122.3 motor vehicle thefts were recorded per 100,000 people. Regionally, the highest motor vehicle theft rate was recorded in the West at 524.1 per 100,000 people. The value of motor vehicles stolen in the nation during 2000 was estimated at nearly $7.8 billion. At the time of theft, the average value per vehicle was $6,682. The recovery rate for the value of vehicles stolen was higher than for any other property type. Of all motor vehicles reported stolen during the year 74.5 percent were automobiles, 18.7 percent were trucks or buses, and the remainder was other types of vehicles (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice).
Arson is defined by the Uniform Crime Report as any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling, house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc. Only fires determined through, investigation to have been willfully or maliciously set are classified as arson. Fires of suspicious or unknown origins are excluded. In 2000, there were 78,280 arsons reported by law enforcement nationwide. However due to somewhat limited number of agencies (8,023 which represent 76 percent of the Nation’s population) submitting arson reports for all 12 months of the year is difficult. There was a 0.4 percent increase in reported arson offences in the country in the year 2000. However, the nation’s cities collectively reported a 0.2 percent decrease in reported arson, the largest being in cities with populations of 1 million or more, 7.1 percent.
In contrast, cities with populations of 100,000 to 24,999 saw an arson increase of 6.6 percent and cities of 25,000 to 49,999 people a rise of 5.6 percent. Rural counties registered a 0.5 percent decrease and suburban counties experienced a 2.7 percent increase. Arson increased in three of the nation’s four regions in 2000. The west experienced the largest arson increase, 3.2 percent; the Midwest rose by 1.4 percent, and the South by 0.3 percent. The Northeast recorded a 6.5 percent decrease in arsons reported. When considering property type, the following shifts were seen nationally: structural arson fell 2.2 percent; arson of mobile property rose 4.4 percent; and the arson of other properties (crops, signs, merchandise stored in outside structures, etc.) climbed 2.9 percent. In 2000, the most frequently reported arsons, which comprised of 4.8 percent of all incidents reported, were arsons of structures.
Mobile properties (motor vehicles, trailer, etc.) were the target of 31.2 percent, and other types of properties accounted for the remaining 25.0 percent of all arsons. When looking at structural arsons only, residential property arsons comprised of 60.3 percent, with 42.2 percent of structural arsons directed at single-family dwellings. Property that was either uninhabited or abandoned at the time that the arson took place accounted for 18.2 percent of structural arsons. Motor Vehicles comprised the overwhelming majority of mobile property arsons, with 95 percent of the total in that category. The average estimated value of property damaged due to arsons in 2000 was $11,042 per incident. On the whole, the average loss for all types of structures was $19,479. Mobile property loss averaged $5,803 per incident, and for other properties targeted, losses averaged $2,706 (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice).
The Uniform Crime Report shoes the statistics for each crime that is committed in the categories listed above. People often wonder how does the FBI receive their information bout the crimes. What types of crimes are the most reported to the FBI? What is the clearance rate (rate of arrest) for each of these crimes? And how do the numbers of crimes reported compare with the number of crimes that actually took place. What does the FBI do to get the information out of the public on what kind of crimes are taking place in their areas of the countries?The Crime Index is composed of selected offences used to gauge fluctuation in the overall volume and rate of crimes reported to law enforcement. The offences included are the violent crimes of murder/manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, and property crimes of burglary, larceny/theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
By region, the largest volume of crimes offenses was reported in the most populous area, the South, which accounted for 41.0 percent of the total. The West made up 23.0 percent of the total; the Midwest 21.9 percent, and the Northeast 14.2 percent of reported offenses. Larceny/theft a property crime was the offence most reported to law enforcement. Murder, a violent crime, was least often reported. Rape is another violent crime that does not go reported very often, the woman who is raped may feel embarrassed or afraid to come forward and report they have been raped. An estimated $16.4 billion in stolen property was reported for all Crime index offences in 2000 (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice). Property crimes are the offences that are reported the most to law enforcement. However violent crimes are not reported as often due partially to the consequences that the offence cares if the offender is caught.
The National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS) series, previously called the National Crime Survey (NCS), has been collecting data on personal and household victimization through an ongoing survey of a nationally representative sample of residential addresses since 1973. The NCVS was designed with four primary objectives: (1) to develop detailed information about the victims and consequences of the crime, (2) to estimate the number and types of crimes not reported to the police, (3) to provide uniform measures of selected types of crimes, and (4) to permit comparisons over time and types of areas. The survey categorizes crimes as Personal or Property crimes. Each respondent is asked a series of screen questions designed to determine whether he or she was victimized during the six-month period preceding the first day of the month of the interview. A “household respondent” is asked to report on crimes against household as a whole (e.g., burglary, motor vehicle theft) as well as personal crimes against him or herself.
The date include type of crime, month, time, and location of the crime relationship between the victim and the offender, characteristics of the offender, self protective actions taken by the victim during the incident and results of those actions, consequences of the victimizations, type of property lost, whether the crime was reported to the police and reasons for reporting or not reporting, and the offenders use of weapon, drugs, and alcohol. Basic demographic information such as age, race, gender, and income is also collected, to enable analysis of crime by various subpopulations (Abstract-Study No. 6406, National Crime Victimization Survey 1992-1999, U.S Dept of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics). The survey does not provide data about the violent crime of murder. The FBI UCR serves as the source for murder. It is not possible or practical to survey everyone in a population, particularly if the population is the Nation as a whole. Sampling, a commonly used Technique, gathers information from a portion of the population and develops estimates that can be generalized to the whole population.
Most reputable survey organizations select people to be interviews at random to ensure that their sample is representative of the entire population. The process of sampling has the following advantages: information can be collected at a fraction of the cost of interviewing everyone in the population, the time to collect and process the data is reduced, and the burden of being interviews is placed on fewer people (Bureau of Justice Statistics Technical Report, NCJ 167881, Nation Crime Victimization Survey, Michael D. Maltz, and Marianne W. Zawitz). However, there is new software that is now available for local crime surveys. The availability of a free software package will enable law enforcement agencies to conduct surveys that measure local crime level and citizen attitudes towards public safety. These surveys provide us with vital information about what is happening in out country.
Clearance rate for a crime is the number of people arrested in association with the crime that was committed, however that number does not include the number of people convicted for the crime. A crime Index clearance rate of 21 percent was recorded by law enforcement agencies across the nation. The clearance rate for violent crimes was 50 percent, and for property crimes 18 percent. Recorded at 69 percent, the national clearance rate was highest for murder. The lowest 14 percent was recorded for burglary. Offenses involving only offenders under the age of 18 accounted for 19 percent of the overall Crime Index clearances, 12 percent of the violent crime clearances, and 22 percent of the property crime clearances (U.S. Department of Justice FBI, Press Release October 15,2000, Crime in the United States). In the UCR, a reporting law enforcement agency clears or solves an offence when at least one person is arrested, charged with the commission of an offense, and turned over to the court for prosecution. The arrest of one person may clear many crimes. However the arrest of many people may clear just one offence.
In addition, clearance recorded in particular calendar year such as 2000 may include offences that occurred in previous years. For an offence to be cleared by exceptional means, several criteria’s must be met. The agency must have: 1) identified the offender; 2) enough evidence to support an arrest; 3) identified the offender’s location; and 4) a reason out side the agency’s control that does not allow the agency to arrest, charge, and prosecute an offender. Each crime has its own clearance rate, which can fluctuate from year to year depending on the crime. Murder/manslaughter for the year 2000 had a total of 13,227, and forcible rape had 27,469 arrests. Robbery had 106,130 arrests, and aggravated assaults had 478,417 arrests for the year 2000. Property crimes had an arrests rate of burglary 289,844, larceny/theft 1,166,362, motor vehicle thefts 148,225, and arson 16,530 arrests in 2000 (Crime in the United States 2000 Uniform Crime Report, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S Department of Justice).
The Uniform Crime Report is very useful in a way that helps law enforcement know what is going on in their area. This reports helps the public understand what kinds of crimes are happening around them and when they might happen to them. This report is very useful to the public as well it helps people understand what crimes are decreasing and increasing in rate. It also helps them to understand what kind of rate the offenders are being arrested for the crimes that they are committing. The Uniform Crime report put out by the FBI is a great tool that provides all the information needed to help understand what kind of crime is happening in what areas of the county. And helping people and law enforcement comprehends what needs to be done to help decrease crime for the nation.
U.S Department of Justice, Press Release at 4:30pm EST Saturday, January 2, 1999, BJJS202/307-0784, Article name: Nations Largest Cities Lead the Way as HomicideFall to Lowest Rate In Three Decades.
Http://www.ojp.usdoj.govRape Response & Crime Victim Center, Article name: Rape Statistics Federal and State.
http://abc.eznettools.net/D302506/X329849/stats.htmlUnited States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Abstract-StudyNo. 6406, Article name: National Crime Victimization Survey, 1992-1999.
http://www.lcpsr.umich.eduU.S Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics Technical ReportMaltz, Michael D. and Zawitz, Marianne W. Displaying Violent CrimeTrends Using Estimates from the National Crime Victimization Survey.
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/U.S Department of Justice, Federal Bureau Of Investigation, Press Release October 15,2000 6pm EST, Washington D.C FBI National Press Office Article name:Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program Crime in The United States, 1999.
http://www.fbi.govFederal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information committee, InternationalAssociation of Chiefs of Police, Criminal Justice Service Committee, NationalSheriff’s Association, Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory PolicyBoard, Article name: Crime in the United State 2000 Uniform Crime Reports.