Understand how to lead and manage a team Essay
Understand how to lead and manage a team
1.1 Define the key features of effective team performance Positive leadership is important for effective team performance. Everyone needs to work together and be focused by supporting each other to achieve shared goals. It is very important that each member of the team is clear on their roles and responsibilities. Staff should have respect and understanding for their manager. The manager needs to be aware of the skills and the weaknesses within the team and be able to provide support when necessary. Training and support improves staff performance and develops confidence and team spirit.
1.2 Compare the models used to link individual roles and development with team performance According to Belbin (1965) Team Roles are a way ascertaining the behavioural strengths and weaknesses of people within a workplace environment. The strong points of this model are that it guarantees that each essential role in a team is carried out and that if the team members are allowed to perform the activities they prefer, they will be more enthused, which will in turn increase team performance. A well-balanced team is less of a risk and will predictably necessitate less management attentiveness. It does however have its limitations in that Belbin’s roles represent tasks and functions in the autocratic management of the activities in a team, and are not based upon personality types or thinking preferences; team activities change during a project; the model does not take into account hierarchal relations between people; certain people may not like each other meaning they may not successfully work with each other. Also, when Belbin was doing his foundational research, it mainly focused on upper-management level executives in Britain. these executives would be middle-class white men.
This is not to say that the model cannot be applied to other cultures, but the original research focused on a specific demographic According to Bruce Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development every team goes through stages of team development. He named four of these through his research into group dynamics. He maintained that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for the team to grow, to face up to challenges, to tackle problems, to find solutions, to plan work, and to deliver results. This model (1965) has become the basis for subsequent models. It is subjective rather than objective s it doesn’t take into account the roles which individual team members will have to undertake. Originally there were 5 stages until in 1977, Tuckman, jointly with Mary Ann Jensen, added a fifth stage to the 4 stages: “Adjourning.” The adjourning stage, which involves; completing the task and breaking up the team. Facets of both Belbin’s and Tuckman’s models might benefit a successful team performance
2.1 Analyse the stages of team development
Tuckman’s Stages of Team Development are useful for identifying elements that are significant for building and developing small groups. His model strives to clarify how a team develops over time. The strength of this model is that it provides a level of guidance for team development. The weaknesses are that the model was intended to define stages in small groups. However, in reality group processes may not be as undeviating as Tuckman pronounces them, but rather cyclical; characteristics for each stage are not always concrete and the model deals with human behaviour, it is often not clear when a team has moved from one stage to another; there may be overlap between the stages; there is no guidance on the timeframe for moving from one stage to another.
2.2 Identify barriers to success and how these can be overcome For teams to successfully work they may have to overcome numerous barriers. The benefit of team working is having a diverse selection of mind-sets working toward a single goal. To be a successful team they need to take advantage of the individual skills, strengths and weaknesses that each individual can provide. Sometimes however, these differences themselves can prove a barrier to effective communication and the advantages that team working can provide. Some of the barriers that teams must be overcome to function together successfully are Unclear or unproductive communication
Different approaches result in individual being untrusting of others The team can’t make consensus decisions when required
Team doesn’t understand their other team members roles
Team is not clear and bought into the common goal
Evaluate your teams’ effectiveness and see if one or multiple of these barriers are holding your team back from being a truly high functioning team. Take steps to correct, one at a time, too much change will just through the group into chaos.
2.3 Analyse the effect group norms may have on team development
Group norms can affect the development of a team through an individual’s ideas on how to behave within a group. Each person will have their own set of rules and ideas or what normal behaviour is and this can cause conflict within a team environment. However this can also have a positive aspect as it is exactly these differences that make up the team dynamic and can contribute to its success as well as failure. People react differently within a group to when they are faced with a one to one situation. Often people will put up their guard and not say what is on their mind as they may be unfamiliar with some members of the group. This can obviously hamper the team’s efforts creatively. They may hold back saying something which could stop the team making a mistake and save time. On the other hand, some individuals may prefer to work in a group and come up with ideas that they might not necessarily have if they were working alone. Some people may be good at developing someone else’s idea and so are more effective within a team than working alone.
2.4 Differentiate between destructive conflict and beneficial conflict in teams
Conflict results from real or perceived opposition to one’s values, actions, desires or general interests. Conflicts may occur internally or externally between individuals or groups; conflict within a team environment can cause frustration, and occasionally anger. However, conflict resolution can also often generate positive results for the team. Conflict management skills remain in demand; conflict may be managed successfully by reaching an agreement that satisfies the needs of both the individual(s) and the team as a whole Constructive conflict
Refers to conflict in which the benefits exceed the costs; it generates productive, mutually beneficial, shared decisions. In constructive conflicts, the process becomes as important as the end result. Individuals come together to redefine or strengthen their relationship for the benefit of the team and its goal. Destructive conflict
Often flows from narrowly defined or rigid goals, and most often produces negative results. Individuals involved become less flexible and assume that the opposing party must suffer defeat. Involved parties can succumb to personal attacks, threats and a general tone of hostility.
2.5 Evaluate methods of dealing with conflict in a team
Healthy and constructive conflict is a component of high functioning teams. Conflict arises from differences between people; the same differences that often make diverse teams more effective. Team members must be open to these differences and not let them rise into full-blown disputes. Understanding and appreciating the various viewpoints involved in conflict are key factors in its resolution. These are key skills for all team members to develop. The important thing is to maintain a healthy balance of constructive difference of opinion, and avoid negative conflict that’s destructive and disruptive. Getting to, and maintaining, that balance requires well-developed team skills, particularly the ability to resolve conflict when it does happens, and the ability to keep it healthy and avoid conflict in the day-to-day course of team working.
Methods of Conflict resolution
Acknowledge the conflict – The conflict has to be acknowledged before it can be managed and resolved. Discuss the impact – As a team, discuss the impact the conflict is having on team dynamics and performance. Agree to a cooperative process – Everyone involved must agree to cooperate in to resolve the conflict. This means putting the team first, and may involve setting aside your opinion or ideas for the time being. Agree to communicate – The most important thing throughout the resolution process is for everyone to keep communications open. For the team to resolve the conflict, they need to understand the situation, and each team member’s point of view. Everyone should be heard and understood. Emotions are involved so getting through them and revealing the true nature of the conflict is essential for a successful resolution. Whatever the conflict or disagreement, it’s important to clarify people’s positions.
Whether there are obvious factions within the team who support a particular option, approach or idea, or each team member holds their own unique view, each position needs to be clearly identified and articulated by those involved. This step alone can go a long way to resolve the conflict, as it helps the team see the facts more objectively and with less emotion. When conflict is resolved take time to celebrate and acknowledge the contributions everyone made toward reaching a solution. This can build team cohesion and confidence in their problem solving skills, and can help avert further conflict. This three-step process can help solve team conflict efficiently and effectively. The basis of the approach is gaining understanding of the different perspectives and using that understanding to expand your own thoughts and beliefs about the issue.
2.6 Compare methods of developing and establishing trust and accountability within a team
Trust and respect are two main essential elements for building relationships in the workplace it’s all about the relationships you have with people – which doesn’t necessarily mean friendships. Relationships are built over time when one person has respect for another. Gradually, trust beings to build, too. You don’t have to be a close personal friend with everyone at work, but you do always need to show each person respect and professionalism.
Make all duties clear and this way you will make all employees know what is needed from them and for every day duties to run smoothly Communicate Regularly
Trust is built over time and so with regular meeting and supervisions you are aware of any problems that may arise and give help and support when needed Be empathic
Listen to people understand that people may have a different way of working to others this will help through any problems that may occur. Seeing potential in staff
when staff is exceeding, give them extra duties letting them know that their hard work has not gone unnoticed .Give praise when needed this gives out a positive feedback in the work place.
3.1 Evaluate ways of promoting a shared vision within a team
Having team members means superior contributions and proposals. Also, it means that people are more willing to come together to achieve that goal/vision. The key to a successful team is that everyone shares the same passion and focus to achieve the desired target/goal. And that can only happen when everyone on the team is aware that they all are individually important for the success of the team as a whole. Involve people in the organisation; give them all the information .Make them feel that they’re responsible for the outcome and being part of a successful organisation Encourage input and suggestions: This would not only help establish a sense of purpose in everyone, but would also help as someone might come up with new ideas. Offer rewards and recognition everyone loves to be noticed for their hard work. That’s where Rewards and recognition sessions come handy. You can have certificates/awards distributed for members who have been instrumental in the team’s success. This also acts as a motivator for others to try and achieve that award which means they would work harder at their individual roles in the team Delegate responsibilities if you’re heading the project, it’s always a great idea to delegate. That not only means less work for you, but also shows that you trust other people in the team enough to entrust them with some key responsibilities. It’s a great confidence booster and you might actually stumble upon people who have great leadership qualities or methods of working in a team which can help everyone.
3.2 Review approaches that encourage sharing of skills and knowledge between team members
There are a variety of approaches that can be used to share skills and knowledge between team members & these techniques can enable staff to communicate more efficiently, and prevent valuable knowledge assets being lost. Knowledge management gives staff members the expertise they need to do their jobs better and so making them more productive. Knowledge and information tools at my own place of work such as the intranet and staff forum have provided a way of sharing knowledge between staff members. As well as information about clients, notes and policies and procedures, staff members have access to relevant up to date information that they would otherwise wouldn’t have. The staff forum has also become a great tool for sharing information both with staff and staff sharing their own ideas and information. This kind of knowledge and skills sharing can only benefit the progress of the team.
4.1 Define the meaning of a ‘no blame culture’
Blame culture is a set of attitudes, within a business or organization, characterized by an unwillingness to take risks or accept responsibility for mistakes because of a fear of criticism or prosecution? ‘No blame culture’ is the phrase used to describe the tolerance of mistakes within an organisation providing that people learn from these mistakes. It is usually associated with empowerment and the learning organisation, where employees are responsible for making their own decisions. For some, the ‘no blame culture’ grants its own particular problems because they must avoid the desire to tell employees what to do and try to motivate and encourage them to reach their own decisions. This is often can be much more time-consuming.
4.2 Evaluate the benefits of a ‘no blame culture’
An empowered employee must be free to make mistakes and then learn from these by evaluating the outcomes and discussing the issues with work colleagues. For many managers, the no-blame approach enables learning for the future in that it allows an open discussion of what has happened, so that all the issues can be taken into consideration, without the need to keep any from disclosure for fear of condemnation from others. Many disputes remain in a rut simply because of the continuous ‘blame approach’ adopted by those involved, whether those in dispute themselves or others who are ‘supporting’ them. Whereas In the ‘blame approach’, the focus is not on the problem and finding a way forward and learning for the future, it is simply on avoiding blame and redirecting it to others.
4.3 Describe how systems and processes can be used to support a no blame culture
We are all able to adopt a no-blame approach. As with most responses to conflict we only tend to notice them when they have been ineffective and have become destructive and this occurs when we use the blame approach. In the no-blame approach, all mistakes are treated as opportunities to learn, connect with others and gain insights at various levels – personal, procedural, organisational etc. through Countless opportunities for learning, connection and insight are lost via the blame approach and so processes that don’t work remain in place, practices that fail are not changed, for to do so would be to acknowledge fault. Relationships are damaged, trust is lost, and openness to change is inhibited. Systems and processes continue to grow and adapt within a “no blame culture”
4.4 describe strategies for managing risks associated with no blame culture.
A whole of system approach can be adopted, where all risks are considered and actively managed. Risks may be clinical, operational, financial, external or strategic in nature. A risk management program is designed to protect staff, service users and visitors through the provision of best practice and quality care in a safe environment. A culture of transparency and accountability should be achieved through risk identification and reporting, evaluation and assessment of risks and the formation of risk management strategies. These activities could be supported by staff education and awareness programs to ensure any potential issues are identified and can be addressed. An online intranet system allows employees to report, potential, possible or suspected incidents. An incident is anything that could have, or did lead to an unexpected outcome. Reporting incidents would provide us with the opportunity to identify issues in the system and implement corrective changes before they may impact on service users, staff or visitors. All staff can be encouraged to openly report all risks and incidents in a no-blame culture, regardless of the cause. 5.1 Compare different styles of leadership and management
Task-oriented leaders focus only on getting the job done and can be autocratic. They actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, and plan, organize, and monitor work. These leaders also perform other key tasks, such as creating and maintaining standards for performance. The benefit of task-oriented leadership is that it ensures that deadlines are met, and it’s especially useful for team members who don’t manage their time well. However, because task-oriented leaders don’t tend to think much about their team’s well-being, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership, including causing motivation and retention problems. Bureaucratic Leadership
Bureaucratic leaders work “by the book.” They follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their people follow procedures precisely. This is an appropriate leadership style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances, or at dangerous heights) or where large sums of money are involved. Bureaucratic leadership is also useful in organizations where employees do routine tasks. The downside of this leadership style is that it’s ineffective in teams and organizations that rely on flexibility, creativity, or innovation. Much of the time, bureaucratic leaders achieve their position because of their ability to conform to and uphold rules, not because of their qualifications or expertise. This can cause resentment when team members don’t value their expertise or advice. Charismatic Leadership
A charismatic leadership style can resemble transformational leadership because these leaders inspire enthusiasm in their teams and are energetic in motivating others to move forward. This ability to create excitement and commitment is an enormous benefit. The difference between charismatic leaders and transformational leaders lies in their intention. Transformational leaders want to transform their teams and organizations. Charismatic leaders are often focused on themselves, and may not want to change anything. The downside to charismatic leaders is that they can believe more in themselves than in their teams. This can create the risk that a project or even an entire organization might collapse if the leader leaves. A charismatic leader might believe that she can do no wrong, even when others are warning her about the path she’s on; and this feeling of invincibility can ruin a team or an organization. Also, in the followers’ eyes, success is directly connected to the presence of the charismatic leader. As such, charismatic leadership carries great responsibility, and it needs a long-term commitment from the leader. Democratic/Participative Leadership
Democratic leaders make the final decisions, but they include team members in the decision-making process. They encourage creativity, and team members are often highly engaged in projects and decisions. There are many benefits of democratic leadership. Team members tend to have high job satisfaction and are productive because they’re more involved in decisions. This style also helps develop people’s skills. Team members feel in control of their destiny, so they’re motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward. Because participation takes time, this approach can slow decision-making, but the result is often good. The approach can be most suitable when working as a team is essential, and when quality is more important than efficiency or productivity. The downside of democratic leadership is that it can often hinder situations where speed or efficiency is essential. For instance, during a crisis, a team can waste valuable time gathering people’s input. Another downside is that some team members might not have the knowledge or expertise to provide high quality input.
This French phrase means “leave it be,” and it describes leaders who allow their people to work on their own. This type of leadership can also occur naturally, when managers don’t have sufficient control over their work and their people. Laissez-faire leaders may give their team’s complete freedom to do their work and set their own deadlines. They provide team support with resources and advice, if needed, but otherwise don’t get involved. This leadership style can be effective if the leader monitors performance and gives feedback to team members regularly. It is most likely to be effective when individual team members are experienced, skilled, self-starters. The main benefit of laissez-faire leadership is that giving team members so much autonomy can lead to high job satisfaction and increased productivity. The downside is that it can be damaging if team members don’t manage their time well or if they don’t have the knowledge, skills, or motivation to do their work effectively People-Oriented/Relations-Oriented Leadership
With people-oriented leadership, leaders are totally focused on organizing, supporting, and developing the people on their teams. This is a participatory style and tends to encourage good teamwork and creative collaboration. This is the opposite of task-oriented leadership. People-oriented leaders treat everyone on the team equally. They’re friendly and approachable, they pay attention to the welfare of everyone in the group, and they make themselves available whenever team members need help or advice. The benefit of this leadership style is that people-oriented leaders create teams that everyone wants to be part of. Team members are often more productive and willing to take risks, because they know that the leader will provide support if they need it. The downside is that some leaders can take this approach too far; they may put the development of their team above tasks or project directives. Servant Leadership
This term, created by Robert Greenleaf in the 1970s, describes a leader often not formally recognized as such. When someone at any level within an organization leads simply by meeting the needs of the team, he or she can be described as a “servant leader.” In many ways, servant leadership is a form of democratic leadership because the whole team tends to be involved in decision making. However, servants leaders often “lead from behind,” preferring to stay out of the limelight and letting their team accept recognition for their hard work. Supporters of the servant leadership model suggest that it’s a good way to move ahead in a world where values are increasingly important, and where servant leaders can achieve power because of their values, ideals, and ethics. This is an approach that can help to create a positive corporate culture and can lead to high morale among team members.
However, other people believe that in competitive leadership situations, people who practice servant leadership can find themselves left behind by leaders using other leadership styles. This leadership style also takes time to apply correctly: it’s ill-suited in situations where you have to make quick decisions or meet tight deadlines. Although you can use servant leadership in many situations, it’s often most practical in politics, or in positions where leaders are elected to serve a team, committee, organization, or community Transactional Leadership
This leadership style starts with the idea that team members agree to obey their leader when they accept a job. The “transaction” usually involves the organization paying team members in return for their effort and compliance. The leader has a right to “punish” team members if their work doesn’t meet an appropriate standard. Although this might sound controlling and paternalistic, transactional leadership offers some benefits. For one, this leadership style clarifies everyone’s roles and responsibilities. Another benefit is that, because transactional leadership judges team members on performance, people who are ambitious or who are motivated by external rewards – including compensation – often thrive. The downside of this leadership style is that team members can do little to improve their job satisfaction. It can feel stifling, and it can lead to high staff turnover. Transactional leadership is really a type of management, not a true leadership style, because the focus is on short-term tasks. It has serious limitations for knowledge-based or creative work. However, it can be effective in other situations. Transformational Leadership
As we discussed earlier in this article, transformation leadership is often the best leadership style to use in business situations. Transformational leaders are inspiring because they expect the best from everyone on their team as well as themselves. This leads to high productivity and engagement from everyone in their team. The downside of transformational leadership is that while the leader’s enthusiasm is passed onto the team, he or she can need to be supported by “detail people.” That’s why, in many organizations, both transactional and transformational leadership styles are useful. Transactional leaders (or managers) ensure that routine work is done reliably, while transformational leaders look after initiatives that add new value. It’s also important to use other leadership styles when necessary – this will depend on the people you’re leading and the situation that you’re in.
5.2 Reflect on adjustments to own leadership and management style that may be required in different circumstances
When I first began my role as a senior worker in my organisation I tried to adopt a people oriented style of management. I had worked alongside staff and had good friends among them as well as work colleagues. However I quickly discovered that this style of leadership wouldn’t work with everyone. Some take advantage of the friendship and some can distance themselves from you seeing you in an “us and them” way. I vary my approach depending on the situation and the staff member involved. Whether I like it or not some people will only respond to being told what to do whilst others benefit, in fact even thrive from interaction and the opportunity to be involved with decision making processes.