Understand Child and Young Person Development Essay
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1. 1 Explain the sequences and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years; Children and young people development consists of physical, communicaion and intellectual, social, emotional and behavioural. Physical development from birth to 19years of age; A baby first physical development will show them moving their head, hands and feet. A baby will then start to crawl and walk. Between the ages of 2- 4 year a child will have greatly improved both their gross and fine motor skills. Most young children can jump off the ground with both feet.
They can walk up and down stairs with both feet on one step and run without falling.
Some children may also be able to pedal a bike, aim, throw and catch a large ball and walk on their tiptoes. Fine motor skills of a child between 2 and 4 years may include drawing marks and giving meaning to them. They are capable of feeding themselves. At the age of 4 a child may be able to use certain equipment such as scissors.
By 5 years they are learning to form letters and some are capable of writing their own name with no support. They are able to run quickly, be skilled enough to hit a ball accurately with a bat and balance on a wall. Both skills are being enhanced by the time a child has reached the age of 11.
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They will have improved on the physical skills they have already developed. Their body strength will have increased along with their balance and coordination. Children will have increased in both weight and height and some young girls from as young as 8, puberty may have begun. Breasts may start to develop and their menstruation cycle begins. Young adolescents’ fine motor skills will have enhanced and concentration can be held for longer which enables them to perform more complex tasks. Some children may have developed talents such as music, dancing and playing a musical instrument.
During adolescence, young people go through many changes as they move from childhood into teenagers. Between the ages of 11-16 a young girls breasts will have started to develop and will have fully developed between 12-18 years old. A girls menstrual cycle may start as early as 12 and as late as 15. Pubic, armpit and underarm hair will grow equivalent to that of an adults at around 14 years old. Boys may begin to notice that their testicles and scrotum are growing and by the age of 16 or 17 their genitals are usually at their adult size.
Pubic as well as armpit, eg, chest and facial hair begins to grow at about age 12 and is equivalent to that of an adult about 15 to 16 years. Physically, teenagers become much stronger and develop gross motor skills through a wide range of sports. Intellectual and Communication Development from birth to 19 years; From birth to 3 years an infant will be capable of a vast amount of communication and intellectual skills. From birth they will cry when hungry, tired or distressed and can stop crying at the sound of a voice. A baby can respond differently to changes in the tone of a voice and will laugh and chuckle when being spoken to.
By the time a child has reached 1 year old a child will know their name and can understand around 20 words. A 1 year old child will deliberately drop a toy and watch it fall and look in the correct place for toys that have rolled out of sight. A small child can build a tower of 3 blocks when shown, they are also able to turn several pages of a book and can point to a named object as well as parts of a body. An 18month old child can make simple sentences and will have used more than 200 words by the time they have reached age 2 they should then be able to have convocation.
Between 4 and 5 a child speech is fluent and they could be capable of giving you their full name, age and birthday. Some may even be able to give you their address. They will understand the difference between heavy and light. Writing develops and by the age of 8. By now a child should be reading with considerable ease and writing simple compositions. At 12 years, children are comfortable in producing intelligent thought out work and have the ability to transfer information from one situation and use it in another. Several children may be experiencing preference in subjects at school.
At 12-16, a young adolescent will be entering a crucial stage in their lives, most will be making a transition from junior school to secondary school, there they will develop the ability to use their initiative e. g. taking options at school and may have a clear preference to arts or science. Teenagers become less sociable. At this age it is important for a young adolescent to fit in and not appear different. Between 16-19 years of age young adolescents begin to think about their future. Adolescents develop the ability to speak rather than shout, and relationships with parents and friends will improve and become more honest and open.
Social and Emotional behaviour from birth to 19years old; From birth a baby can respond to touch and sound, will recognise a voice’s and will stare at bright shiny objects. From 6 months old an infant will become more interested in social interaction, although that depends on the amount of time spent with other children and their personality. By the time they are 9 months old an infant can recognise familiar and unfamiliar faces. From 1 year they become more demanding and assertive and can express rage at being told ‘no’, they have no idea of sharing and a strong sense of ‘mine’.
From 2-4 years a child is learning to be separated from a parent because of nurseries or schools. Some will play in groups of 2 or 3 and will be able to share ideas. Most children between this age group may have close friends and will still play with both genders. A child ages 4-7 should have started school and will be able to enjoy their independence although still needing comfort and reassurance. A child aged 7-11 year olds are by now starting to understand more about the world and where they belong.
Their friendships become very important and are mostly of the same gender. Strong signs of independence from parents and family also start to show. From the age of 11-16 a young person will be going through a huge transition in their life. Their bodies are starting to change which can affect self esteem and confidence, peer pressure can become a significant influence. Between the ages of 16-19 a young person will have developed more of an understanding about life, will be able to give good reasons for their choices and express their own views.
Relationships with their parents will have improved although they will still want to spend more time with their friends. 1. 2 Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of devleopmetn and why the difference is important. Children will go through lots of transitions during their life their first transition is birth, they are in a new whole that they need to get used to and understand as they get older their parents may want to put them into a nursery as a baby they will learn all their basic skills during this time such as crawling and walking.
When they are ready for more learning they will be moved up to toddler room where they should be learn communications skills then be moved up to pre-school where will learn how to sit and get ready for primary school. When the children are old enough they will be moved up to infants, then be moved up to juniors and then be moved up to high school. At the end of high school it is for the child to decide whether they want to carry on education at either a 6form or a college. They may wish to end the education and choose to do something else.
Certain children will go through different transitions during life that other children might not. Such as bereavement in the family, parents getting divorces, abuse, serious illness and moving houses. These can affect a child in different ways. The child may start to become more isolated, upset or angry. In a setting you might be able to notice chances in the child’s behaviour. As a career you can help this child by noticing and talking to them about how they feel and talking to the parents about how the transitions is affecting the child.
Children may all go through these stages differently but will all follow this sequence. When watching a child’s development you should always take into account that the child may have a disability that could be affect their development. The difference between the sequence and rate is, the sequences will always be the same where the rate can be completely different, for example boys of 9 months may be running around and being ahead with their development where as a 9 month old girl might just be crawling but may be ahead with their speech. Every child is different and develop in different ways. . 1 explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors There are many things that can have an aspect on a child’s development. These can be; a visual aspect, speech, balance, co-ordination or the way the room has been set up. Visual can have an aspect on the child’s development by watching what parents or other children are doing and repeating this. It can be a good learning skill to be able to watch someone counting but might also affect their behaviour if the was to see things such as fighting or aggressive actions.
Speech can affect one another by them being able to tell you things that they need, what or would like to share as much as you talking to them and explaining. The way the room is set up by the grown up can help the child’s development by understand when they have been playing with toys they have to put them away after. This helps the child’s memory as they will put the toys back were they found them. The health of the child may also affect a child’s development example for this may be that a deaf or blind person would have difficulty communicating with other, this could affect their confidence.
Another health issue that could affect a child or young person may stop them from participating in sports activities. 2. 2explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors. The background of your family and your cultural, racial, or ethnic heritage can affect a child life. For example a cultural belief may be not eating certain foods for example pork. This makes the child stand out straight away that they are not eating the same foods as the rest of the children.
The other children then start to question this and may lead to name calling. Your speech may also affect a child grow up as they may have a language barrier this would affect learning and social situations. These examples may affect the child’s confidence. By affecting a child confidence it may stop them from attending schools, the outcome of this may be that the child learning ability will suffer. Environment can affect a child in many ways. Examples of how it may affect are; a child may live in a poor area, this may result in the child being stereo type as poor or a trouble maker.
Another example could be that a child lives in an expensive area which people may assume that the child’s family has a lot of money. Both of these cases may result in the children being bullied and may cause them to suffer with their confidence and self esteem. Children will go through lots of transitions during their life their first transition is birth, they are in a new whole that they need to get used to and understand as they get older their parents may want to put them into a nursery as a baby they will learn all their basic skills during this time such as crawling and walking.
When they are ready for more learning they will be moved up to toddler room where they should be learn communications skills then be moved up to pre-school where will learn how to sit and get ready for primary school. When the children are old enough they will be moved up to infants, then be moved up to juniors and then be moved up to high school. At the end of high school it is for the child to decide whether they want to carry or education at either a 6 form or a college. They may wish to end the education and choose to do something else.
Certain children will go through different transitions during life that other children might not. Such as bereavement in the family, parents getting divorces, abuse, serious illness and moving houses. These can affect a child in different ways. The child may start to become more isolated, upset or angry. In a setting you might be able to notice chances in the child’s behaviour. As a career you can help this child by noticing and talking to them about how they feel and talking to the parents about how the ransitions is affecting the child. 2. 3 explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice. There are six different types of theorists, there is; cognitive, phychoanalytic, humanist, social learning, operant conditioning and behaviourist. Cognitive development is an area of development also known as intellectual development. This is essential to how children learn, how children process information and express ideas, how to acquire knowledge and skills and problem solving.
Jean Piaget was a main theorist that explored cognitive development, Jean looked at how children process their experiences in modern day, and Jean broke these down into different ages but also says that every child is an individual and may be on different development stages. Jean used a summary of stages, jean used sensori-motor stage this happens around 2 years of age, this allows children to use their physical actions, motor skills and all 5 senses to explore their world and develop cognitive understanding, can start to make connections and categorise factors in their environment.
Pre-operational stage usually happens around 2 – 7 years old. Concrete operations stage happens around 7 – 12 years. Formal operation stage usually happens around 12 years and over. Limitations to Piaget’s work, we cannot be sure that young children use and interpret words in the same way as adults do, younger children may not understand what is expected of them and become confused, other studies show that young children can conserve information earlier than Piaget suggests.