1. ) From the turn of the Century to the entrance of America into World War II, American government and its relationship to the people changed drastically. At times the change was slow, at times it was very rapid. Explain the changes that took place both practically and philosophically. By the nineteenth century, the Industrial Revolution transformed the economy and society of the United States. In the 1870s, machines replaced human labor, new sources of energy were found, and manufacturing replaced agriculture as the primary economic activity.
The conversion of the United States into a developed country happened mainly behind the Civil War and based on the British representation. New ways of thinking about government, science, economics, and religion had brought many changes to America since then up to the nineteenth century. Concern for individual freedoms became so strong that it led to revolution in many lands. In Britain’s American colonies, revolution brought the establishment of a new nation, the United States. The Americans had declared their independence but still had to win it.
They had capable leaders and were strengthened by their dedication to the cause of liberty. The Americans emerged victorious from the Revolutionary War and adopted a plan of government that became a model for other nations. This was then recognized as the Second Industrial Revolution, which was shared by both the United States and Germany. The First Industrial Revolution actually changed the route and accelerated the growth of the American economy. On the other hand, the Second Revolution modernized that economy to become full-fledged industrial economy.
In the 1900s, gradually Americans, both immigrant and native-born, began to achieve a better standard of living. They saved their money, bought homes, and gave their children an education. Thousands became part of a growing middle class that the expanding economy had helped create. Middle-class communities arose in the suburbs outside the cities. During the early 1900s, organizations were established to help various groups improve their lives. The expanding economy had opened up jobs for women, for example, and increasing independence helped fuel a movement for women’s rights.
The National American Woman Suffrage Association was organized although it was not until 1920 that women throughout the nation were allowed to vote. In 1909, black leaders formed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in an effort to ensure the rights of black Americans. Reformers were also able to win passage of a number of important laws. Many state and local laws, for example, tried to improve housing, education, and working conditions. As the United States grew stronger economically, its leaders continued to favor a policy of expansion.
The rapid growth of industry created a need for markets for American manufactured goods and a need for raw materials. Moreover, several prominent Americans believed that expansion would demonstrate American power and greatness. It was the destiny of the United States, they argued, to become a great power, and this meant extending American influence to other lands and raising the American flag on distant shores. Many Latin Americans resented the growing influence and power of the United States.
They felt their neighbor to the north had turned from a protector to an aggressor. By its role in the Caribbean, however, the United States revealed its strength as a nation. In only a little more than a century it had grown from an infant republic to a major power in international affairs including its big role in the two world wars. In the aftermath of the war and the peace settlements, there were widespread political and territorial changes. Idealistic plans for peace were advanced, but bitter feelings and resentment in many nations worked against a permanent peace.
World War I, called by many “The Great War,” was a crucial turning point in world history. The changes that it brought about and the problems that it created continued long after the fighting ended. The Versailles Treaty became controversial, and the war took a devastating toll of soldiers and civilians. The ground-breaking outcome though was then the Nineteenth Amendment became law in the United States in 1920. This law gave the women the right to vote. In the 1920s, the United States was prospering. The decade after the Great War brought far-reaching changes to American life.
The economy crossed the threshold of magnificent-though-jagged-growth. Driven by the good times and an aspiration to be modern, a great number of Americans took on innovative attitudes and standards of living. The assembly-line methods for producing cars had were used in the production of other goods for consumers. Profits of American businesses soared, and the standard of living increased for many people. People all over the world are beginning to seize the opportunity for self-rule, which is a pillar of democracy popularized by the United States.
The mounting tribalism has been connected with the revolution in telecommunications because it makes everything transparent. We can all monitor the process of a massive move to self-rule, and check the excesses if we want to. With telecommunications and computers, big companies are working best now if divided up into autonomous small units. The breakup of countries into tribal entities is surely as beneficial as the beneficial of companies. This autonomy is an upshot of democracy that America is bringing to every society there is around the globe.
Though the rise of the United States meant the proliferation of democracies in the world, still more people have preferred to use a different kind of freedom to develop leftists in themselves.
Then again, the infamous 9/11 incident in America is a clear testament that world leadership of only one country proves that world politics has not yet departed from the ancient political practice of Imperialism. 2. ) What had a greater impact on America in the post war period – foreign policy (the Cold War, Korea, Vietnam, etc.) or domestic issues (the Civil Rights Movement, Free Speech Movement, etc. ) The United States was gradually drawn into the war as part of its Cold War against international communism. The successes of the Vietcong and insatiability of South Vietnam worried United States leaders. Fear of the spread of communism in Asia as well as in Europe involved the United States in war in Vietnam and Southeast Asia as a whole. Successive American presidents from Eisenhower to Nixon poured more and more aid, troops and war equipment to keep the North from conquering South Vietnam (Berman, 1982).
Determined to prevent the spread of communism, the United States had set up the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954. The so-called Second Vietnam War (1954-1975) was significant led to America’s first defeat in a foreign war and ended American prestige as a world power. The United States, by deserting its ally, South Vietnam, in the darkest hour of its need, has lost face. The tall, rich but decadent Americans had lost to the small, poor but determined Asians One of the issues of increasing concern in the postwar years was the civil rights or the movement to gain equality for black Americans.
Blacks had benefited from the nation’s growing prosperity, and urban blacks in particular had greater earning power and a wider choice of jobs. Indeed, the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s had a substantial influence on the country’s economy but still, social and economic discrimination continued. Civil rights leaders waged a struggle against discrimination and segregation. Leaders of the movement turned to the federal courts and were successful in overturning an 1896 Court decision that allowed “separate but equal” schools for black students. The court ordered schools to end segregation with “all deliberate speed. ”