Tunnel Farming

Off-Season Vegetable Farming in Tunnels R & D and Training Wing Agriculture Finance Group, Head Office, Lahore Contact: Dr. Nasir Mahmood Nasir Tel: +92 42 99232105 Table of Contents Summary 1. Introduction 2. Project Cost 3. Export Prospects 4. Production Sequence of Cultivation 5. Suitable Vegetables for Cultivation 6. Nutrient Requirements 7. Sowing and Transplanting Period of Off-season Vegetables 8. Irrigation 9. Types of Tunnels i) Low Tunnel 2 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 11 13 14 15 17 ii) Walk-in Tunnels iii) High Tunnel ) Support Structure b) Seed Recommendations c) Important Points for Tunnel Farming 10. Suitable Site for Tunnel Farming i) Preparation of Soil & Sowing ii) Expected Production 11.

Equipments and Machinery Requirements 12. Human Resource Requirements 13. Infrastructure Requirements 14. Project Detail 15. Projected Income Statement of 54 tunnels on 9 acres project 16. Input Assumptions 17. Disclaimer 1 Summary Vegetables are daily food requirements for balanced diet and a good source of vitamins, proteins, essential nutrients and carbohydrates.

Due to lack of advanced production technology of vegetables, farmers are limited to grow seasonal vegetables and are dependent on marketing mechanism of demand and supply so could not get good prices to sustain vegetable business.

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Due to presence of negligible number of vegetable processors and lack of cold storage infrastructure, farmers could not get the reasonable profit margins by selling their produce at the time when market is flooded with seasonal vegetables.

Summer vegetables are susceptible to insects, pests and diseases that can be grown in winter by marinating the temperature through well established production technology of vegetable tunnel farming. The tunnel construction offers maximum crop yield, better maintenance of the fertility of land, controlled temperature and humidity, protection from wild animals and insects and better water conservation.

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Mostly tunnels are of three types by their structure i. e. low tunnel, walk-in tunnel and high tunnel.

The off-season vegetable project using high tunnel technology on area of 9 acres needs a capital investment estimated at Rs. 6. 6 million for construction, purchasing machinery and equipment. In addition to this, a sum of Rs. 0. 3 million is required as working capital, which would be used for purchasing of seeds, fertilizers and pesticides etc. The total project cost is estimated at Rs. 7 million 2 1. Introduction To grow vegetables in unfavorable weather conditions is called “growing off-season vegetables”. Human nature ever wishes to get those things that are scarce.

Off-season vegetables and fruits are sold at high prices in the market. Vegetables are rich source of vitamins, carbohydrates, salts and proteins. High population growth rate has given rise to high demand in basic dietary vegetables. Increased health awareness, high population growth rate, changing dietary patterns of increasingly affluent middle class and availability of packaged vegetables, has therefore generated a year round high demand for vegetables in the country in general and in major city centers in particular.

However, our farmers have yet not been able to get benefited from this opportunity and still using traditional methods. In the absence of storage infrastructure and vegetable processing industry in the country, off-season vegetables farming is the only viable option that can add value to the farmers produce. 2. Project Cost By using high tunnel technology many off-season vegetables like tomatoes, cucumber, brinjal, hot pepper, sweet peppers and watermelon can be cultivated. This project is focused on the study of three crops only i. . Tomato, Capsicum and Cucumber, cultivated on area of 9 acres. The land utilized for cultivation is recommended to be leased. The off-season vegetable project using high tunnel technology on area of 9 acres needs a capital investment estimated at Rs. 6. 64 million for construction, purchasing machinery and equipment. In addition to this, a sum of Rs. 0. 3 million is required as working capital, which would be used for purchasing of seeds, fertilizers and pesticides etc. The total project cost is estimated at Rs. 6. 4 million. The estimated yield potential of the farm varies according to the selected type of vegetable. For this project, three proposed vegetables are selected which are listed below. For this vegetable crop mix, it is estimated that a 9-acre farm unit will yield a total of 210,000 kg vegetable per annum. Table 1: Total Production Capacity Vegetables Area (Acres) Production Quantity in (kg)/ Acre Cucumber Capsicum Tomatoes 3 3 3 28,000 18,000 24,000 Total Production Quantity 84,000 54,000 72,000 3 3. Export Prospects

Pakistan is not yet exporting vegetables due to their perishable nature, although there is huge demand in international market. The facility of growing off-season vegetables also allows for growing non-conventional varieties and vegetables, which are in high demand in Europe, Middle East and Far Eastern countries. 4. Production Sequence of Cultivation Production sequence considering the tomato crop is as follows: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. Selection of fertile soil for construction of tunnels. Production technology should be adopted through trained persons.

Selection of good quality soil and sowing of seeds for nursery. Preparation of seedbeds in the field for cultivation of vegetables. Using fertilizer of different varieties for the smooth growth of plantation (Recommended fertilizers for different crops). Transplantation of nursery in the soil. Irrigate the soil to maintain the soil moisture. Drip irrigation is more economical. Use of pesticides/fungicides to protect the plants from insects and diseases. Harvesting at proper time as per requirement of the plantation.

Grading of crop on the basis of quality standards. Transportation to the sale points in local or export markets after application of post harvest technology. 5. Suitable Vegetables for Cultivation Growing of vegetables in tunnels under plastic can give superior yields and early spring production. Following crops are high value vegetables and have shown significant increase in earliness: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Cucumber Capsicum Tomato Pepper Bitter Gourds Melons Brinjal Water melon Vegetables can be grown in tunnels in all tropical and subtropical regions of the country.

This technology can successfully be adopted in coastal districts of Sindh which have favorable conditions for off-season vegetable farming. The tunnel farming in districts Thatta, Badin and Hyderabad can reduce the production costs. 4 6. Nutrient Requirements Appropriate quality and quantity of fertilizer plays a great role in the production and quality of vegetables. Table 2: Fertilizers for High Tunnel Vegetable Fertilizer Time Cucumber At the time of land (Kheera) preparation. & Ghyia After one month at the time Kadu of earthing up.

At flower stage One month after first picking Tomato At the time of land preparation. At the time of earthing up. At the time of first picking. One month after first picking Quantity per acre (kg) Nitrogen = 37, Phosphorus = 100, Potash = 100 Nitrogen = 37 Nitrogen = 37 Nitrogen = 37 Nitrogen = 37, Phosphorus = 100, Potash = 100 Nitrogen = 37 Nitrogen = 37 Nitrogen = 37 Table 3: Fertilizers for Walk in Tunnel Vegetable Fertilizer Time Quantity per acre kg Capsicum At the time of land Nitrogen = 25, Phosphorus = 50, (Shimla preparation.

Potash = 50 Mirch) At the time of earthing up. Nitrogen = 25 and Sweet At the time of first picking Nitrogen = 37 pepper One month after first picking Nitrogen = 37 Bitter At the time of land DAP = ? bag, Potash = 1 bag Gourds preparation. (Karrela) At the time when plants Urea = ? bag height is 10 cm. At flower stage Urea = ? bag One month after first picking Urea = ? bag Chappan At the time of land DAP = ? bag, Potash = 1 bag Kadu preparation. At the time when plants Urea = 1 bag height is 10 cm.

Halwa At the time of land DAP = ? bag, Potash = 1 bag Kadu preparation. At flower stage Urea = 1 bag Ghyia At the time of land DAP = ? bag, Potash = 1 bag Kadu preparation. At flower stage Urea = 1 bag Note: The quantity of fertilizers at the time of sowing and after sowing must be used according to per line of vegetables in the tunnel. In spite of macronutrients, micronutrients i. e. Fe, Zn, Mn, B are also required to increase the yields of crops. These micronutrients are available in the market in liquid and solid forms. 5 7.

Sowing and Transplanting Period of Off-season Vegetables Following are the sowing and transplanting period of selected off-season vegetables with “plant to plant” and “row to row” distance: Table 4: Sowing period for the selected off-season vegetables Vegetables Sowing Transplanting Direct Plant to Period Nursery Sowing Plant Nursery Distance 1-15 Oct 1-15 Nov 30 cm Tomatoes 15-31 Oct 30 cm Cucumber 1-15 Oct 1-15 Nov After mid 50 cm Capsicum Jan Sweet Pepper 1-15 Oct 1-15 Nov After mid 30 cm Jan After mid 25 cm Chappan Jan Kadu After mid 30 cm Bitter Gourds Jan After mid 50 cm Halwa Kadu Jan Ghyia Toori After mid 50 cm Jan

Row to Row Distance 75 cm 100 cm 150 cm 100 cm 200 cm 250 cm 300 cm 300 cm Table 5: Requirements of Temperature for Best Growth of Vegetables Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Vegetables Cucumber Capsicum Tomatoes Sweet Pepper Bitter Gourds Ghyia Kadu Chappan Kadu Halwa Kadu Ghyia Toori Temperature (degree centigrade) 24-18 24-21 29-21 24-21 29-21 24-18 24-18 24-18 24-18 8. Irrigation In severe summer irrigation to vegetables is required after every 5 – 7 days depending on the type of soil, whereas in December, January light water is required after 15-21 days. The quantity of water can be changed keeping in mind the climatic conditions.

In water shortage areas the best way of irrigation is drip irrigation. Drip irrigation improves the water use efficiency if fertilizers are applied though drips as fertigation and offers more splits of fertilizers, even micronutrients can be used, through the initial growth periods. 6 The benefits of fertigation are in terms of increase in yield, quality of fruit and insect pest control. The best water for irrigation is canal water but if tube well is available then before irrigation or star of business, the water analysis must be done avoiding deteriorative effects if unfit for irrigation.

It is not recommended to make investments of vegetable tunnel farming in saline soils and unfit water conditions. Drip irrigation is a technical matter which can be applied through trained technicians. 9. Types of Tunnels Off-season Vegetable farming in tunnels is gaining popularity because of low cost and easy usage. Plastic tunnels are transparent which provides required sunshine to the plants, and the plastic also plays a barrier against the cool air in winter. Tunnels help to gain maximum crop yield, to maintain the fertility of land and control on temperature. Following are three main types of tunnels:- i) Low Tunnel

Low tunnels are less expensive as compared with the High tunnels but crop yield is low. Soil preparation, spraying and picking is difficult is this tunnel. Cucumber, melons, watermelons, bitter gourds, squashes, and snake gourds etc can be grown in these tunnels. ii) Walk-in Tunnels These are lower in height as compared with High tunnels. Walk-in-tunnels provide high yield compared to Low tunnels. The tunnel is suitable for growing tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet pepper and hot pepper. 7 iii) High Tunnel High tunnels give maximum yield of crops and make easy soil preparation, picking, spraying due to its width and height.

The tunnel is suitable for growing tomatoes, cucumbers and sweet peppers. Table 6: High Tunnel Dimensions Mild steel, zinc galvanized Diameter 40mm Thickness 1. 6 mm Length 20-25 ft 0. 10 mm thick and 20 ft wide Center 10 ft, Sides 6. 5 ft 30 ft 190 ft 6 per acre Pipe material Material Specification Plastic Height Width Length No. of tunnels Tunnel Specification The cost of such tunnel amount to Rs. 95,450 excluding the cost related to plastic used as a shield (Cover) and mulch. 8 a) Support Structure This tunnel is built by pipe material of 40-mm diameter 20-25 feet length.

The tunnel will be 10 feet high from the centre and 6. 5 feet high from the sides. Each tunnel structure will then be covered by 0. 1 mm thick and 20 feet wide plastic sheet. Approximately 6 tunnels can be constructed on an acre of land. Each tunnel will be 190 feet long, 10 feet high and 30 feet wide. b) Seed Recommendations Hybrid seeds are produced through a special process and give crop yield 3 to 4 times more than ordinary seeds. F1 hybrid seeds are recommended for cultivation in tunnels because they have the ability to resist multiple diseases and have above 90% germination capacity as compared to that of ordinary one. ) Important Points for Tunnel Farming ? ? ? ? ? Prior to start off-season vegetable farming in tunnels, the investor must have practical knowledge about farming. Soil and water quality should be tested before starting the farming. Self-pollinated plant should be grown. Recommended seed should be used. Farmer must have the updated market information to earn high profit. 9 10. Suitable Site for Tunnel Farming The purchased land is recommended for tunnel farming but can also be taken on lease. Rural areas around the major cities of the country are the suitable areas for setting up tunnels. ) Preparation of Soil & Sowing ? ? ? ? ? ? Soil should be properly leveled preferably by laser leveling. Preparation of soil with rotaveter/ cultivator. Application of well-decomposed Farm Yard Manure at least 10 ton per acre at least 90 days before sowing. Prepare beds before sowing. Make holes and prepare media mixed with loam soil, FYM and fertilizers to fill the holes at the time of sowing/ seeding. Field should not be flooded with water. Irrigation should be applied in such a way that water level be kept below the seeding place; only moisture reach the seed to wet it for germination.

In this way the percent germination would be more. Keeping in mind the type of soil, light irrigation should be repeated after 2-3 days to assure the proper moistures for germination. ? ii) Expected Production Expected production, sale price and land utilization of some vegetable is as follows: Table 7: Expected Production and Land Utilization Land Production Production Vegetable Utilization Quantity (kg)/ Quantity (Acres) Acre (kg) 28,000 84,000 Cucumber 3 18,000 54,000 Capsicum 3 24,000 72,000 Tomatoes 3 Sale Price* Rs. / (kg ) 27 47 47 *The prices of vegetables depend on demand and supply and environment conditions.

Normally the off – season vegetables prices are higher than seasonal vegetables. 10 11. Equipments and Machinery Requirements Following equipments and machinery is required for an off-season vegetable farm of 9 Acres: Table 8: Equipments and Vehicles Description Rotavator Ridger Soil Leveler/ Scraper Spray Machines & Farm Tools Peter Engine Total cost of tools & equipment cost Tractor & Cultivator Total cost of tools, equipment & vehicle Number 1 1 1 1 1 1 Cost (Rs) 65,000 18,000 12,000 50,000 45,000 190,000 500,000 690,000 12. Human Resource Requirements

Table 9: Number of Staff required for 54 tunnels (9 acres) Description Number Monthly Salary per Annual Salary (Rs) Person (Rs. ) Farm Manager 1 10,000 120,000 Labor 8 5,500 528,000 Guard 1 6,000 72,000 Total 10 720,000 Apart from the above mentioned staff requirements, part time workers for four months will be required during the picking season. Following table shows the part time staff requirements: Table 10: Part-time staff requirement for 54 tunnels (9 acres) Description Number Salary (Month) (Rs) Total Salary (Rs) Labor 108 5,500 594,000 13. Infrastructure Requirements

For three off-season vegetable crops nine acre agriculture land is required with availability of electricity, Diesel (for tube well operations) and water. 11 Table 11: Construction Cost for High Tunnel per Acre (Rs) Description No. of Units Price per Unit Misc Pipe 2,000 40 Clamps 80 30 M& F adopters 20 200 Galvanized Wire Guage 40 75 Tensioners 30 45 Nets 12 250 Fabrication Cost 1 1,700 Total Cost in Rs. per Tunnel No. of Tunnels per Acre 6 Total Cost in Rs. per Acre Plastic Cost Kg/ Acre) 350 180 Black Mulch 40 190 Total Plastic Cost Kg/ Acre) Total Per Acre Cost

Total Cost 80,000 2,400 4,000 3,000 1,350 3,000 1,700 95,450 572,700 63,000 7,600 70,600 643,300 12 14. Project Detail Capital Investment Building/Infrastructure Machinery & Equipment Furniture & Fixture Pre-operational Expenses Vehicles Total Capital Cost Rs. 5,789,700 190,000 60,000 100,000 500,000 6,639,700 Working Capital Raw material inventory Cash Total Working Capital Rs. 250,000 50,000 300,000 Total Investment 6,939,700 Financing Equity Debt 50% 50% Rs. 3,469,850 3,469,850 13 15. Projected Income Statement of 54 tunnels on 9 acres project Year-1 Revenue from sale of vegetable

Cost of Sales Cost of Seeds Operations costs (direct labor) Machine Maintenance Fertilizers Cost Pesticide Cost Direct Water Plastic Cost Total cost of sales 76,666 1,242,000 150,000 288,000 270,000 54,000 635,400 2,716,066 4,245,434 80,499 1,304,100 157,500 302,400 283,500 59,400 667,170 2,854,569 4,455,006 84,524 1,369,305 165,375 317,520 297,675 65,340 700,529 3,000,268 4,674,786 88,750 1,437,770 173,644 333,396 312,559 71,874 735,555 3,153,548 4,905,258 93,188 1,509,659 182,326 350,066 328,187 79,061 772,333 3,314,819 5,146,927 97,847 1,585,142 191,442 367,569 344,596 86,968 810,949 3,484,513 5,400,321 102,740 1,664,399 201,014 385,948 361,826 95,664 851,497 3,663,087 5,665,988 107,877 1,747,619 211,065 405,245 379,917 105,231 894,072 3,851,025 5,944,505 113,271 1,835,000 221,618 425,507 398,913 115,754 938,775 4,048,838 6,236,468 118,934 1,926,750 232,699 446,783 418,859 127,329 985,714 4,257,067 6,542,504 6,961,500 Year-2 7,309,575 Year-3 7,675,054 Year-4 8,058,806 Year-5 8,461,747 Year-6 8,884,834 Year-7 9,329,076 Year-8 9,795,530 Year-9 10,285,306 Rs. Year-10 0,799,571 Gross Profit Operating Expense Payroll (Admin) Fixed electricity Administrative Overheads Amortization (Pre-operational Expense Transport Cost Packing Cost Depreciation Total 72,000 60,000 69,615 15,000 892,500 357,000 140,000 1,606,115 2,639,319 75,600 66,000 73,096 15,000 896,963 358,785 140,000 1,625,443 2,829,562 79,380 72,600 76,751 15,000 901,447 360,579 140,000 1,645,757 3,029,029 83,349 79,860 80,588 15,000 905,955 362,382 140,000 1,667,133 3,238,125 87,516 87,846 84,617 15,000 910,484 364,194 140,000 1,689,658 3,457,270 91,892 96,631 88,848 96,487 106,294 93,291 – 101,311 116,923 97,955 924,210 369,684 140,000 1,750,084 4,194,421 06,377 128,615 102,853 928,831 371,532 140,000 1,778,209 4,458,260 111,696 141,477 107,996 933,475 373,390 140,000 1,808,033 4,734,471 915,037 366,015 140,000 1,698,423 3,701,898 919,612 367,845 140,000 1,723,528 3,942,460 Operating Profit Non-Operating Expense Interest expense on long term debt Land Lease Total 432,000 135,000 567,000 2,072,319 103,616 1,968,703 405,000 135,000 540,000 2,289,562 114,478 2,175,084 350,000 135,000 485,000 2,544,029 127,201 2,416,828 270,000 135,000 405,000 2,833,125 141,656 2,691,469 150,000 135,000 285,000 3,172,270 158,613 3,013,656 135,000 135,000 3,566,898 178,345 3,388,553 135,000 135,000 3,807,460 190,373 3,617,087 135,000 35,000 4,059,421 202,971 3,856,450 135,000 135,000 4,323,260 216,163 4,107,097 135,000 135,000 4,599,471 229,974 4,369,497 Earnings Before Tax Commission of Arthi NET PROFIT 14 16. Input Assumptions Table 12: Seed Assumptions Crop Assumptions Cost per Seed Average Seed in Rs. Requirement in unit/ Acre 1. 70 1. 60 2. 00 13,333 15,000 15,000 Av. Seed Price/ Acre 22,666 24,000 30,000 5% Cucumber Capsicum Tomato Sale Price Growth Rate Table 13: Production Assumptions Crop Assumptions Cucumber Capsicum Tomato Sale Price Growth Rate Crop Yield per Acre in kg 28,000 18,000 24,000 Total Production Quantity (kg) 84,000 54,000 72,000 Sale Price of Crop per Kg 27 47 47 5%

Table 14: Expense Assumptions Crop Wastage Administrative Overhead (% of Total Revenue) Water cost per Irrigation per Acre (Rs. ) Irrigation (No. of Months) No. of times land irrigated (per month) Fixed Electricity per Month (Rs) Transport Cost per kg (Rs) Packing Cost per kg (Rs) Machine Maintenance (machine/month) Pesticide Requirement per Acre per Year (Rs) Fertilizer Cost per Acre per Year (Rs) 15% 1. 00% 600 5 2 5,000 5. 00 2. 00 5,000 30,000 20,000 15 Table 15: Farmyard Manure Cost Farmyard Manure Tomatoes Capsicum Cucumber Per Acre Cost 4,000 4,000 4,000 Table 16: Growth Rate Assumptions Electricity Growth Rate Water price growth rate Wage Growth Rate Raw Material price growth rate Machine Maintenance Growth Rate 10% 10% 5% 5% 5% 16 17. Disclaimer

The content of the information memorandum does not bind NBP in any legal or other form as the purpose of this report is to provide a general idea and information to NBP staff to assist them evaluate the feasibility reports submitted by the clients, and for the farmers and organizations interested to grow off-season vegetables by using tunnel technology. The data and info reported in this document is gathered from various sources and is based on certain assumptions. In spite of taking due diligence in compiling this report, the contained information may vary due to any change in any of the relevant factors e. g. agro-climatic conditions, farm management, diseases, pests, low production, market prices etc. and the actual results may differ substantially from the presented information. NBP does not assume any liability for any financial or other loss resulting from this document in consequence of undertaking this Project. 17

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Tunnel Farming. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/tunnel-farming-new-essay

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