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Trojan Horse Worms And Other Viruses Computer Science Essay

A Trojan Equus caballus is a malicious plan inserted into a system by a hacker that disguised as a normal application. It is normally non self-replicating but it can be replicated as fond regard to a virus. It is hard to observe and take a Trojan plan.

A Trojan Equus caballus appears to be something utile. Therefore users volitionally run the package and do n’t even cognize it is doing jobs on their systems but it contains some types of malware and so it is designed to do injury or break to a computing machine system or execute activities on a computing machine without the consent of the computing machine ‘s proprietors.

A Trojan horses contains malicious codification that when triggered cause loss or even larceny of informations. For a Trojan Equus caballus to distribute, we must ask for these plans onto our computing machines. For illustration, by opening an email fond regard or downloading and running a file from the Internet.

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Trojan.Vundo is an illustration of Trojan Equus caballus.

What is a computing machine worm?

A computing machine worm is a plan which can retroflex itself from system to system without the usage of a host file. It does n’t attach itself to another plan. It is a self-contained plan. A worm can make its work without any aid and it uses web services such as electronic mail to distribute to other systems. Some insidious actions a worm can commit include utilizing big sums of web bandwidth, canceling files, directing electronic mails and making back doors into computing machines.

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Worms are portion of a broader class of malware. They are now really common because of the cyberspace and widespread web connectivity. W32.Mydoom.AX @ millimeter is an illustration of a worm.

What is a computing machine virus?

A computing machine virus is a little plan. It is written to change the manner a computing machine operates, without the permission or cognition of the user. A virus can infect desktop computing machines and web waiters likewise. A virus can make jobs for computing machine users.

A virus can run into two standards:

It can put to death itself and frequently places its ain codification in the way of executing of another plan.

It can retroflex itself. For illustration, it can replace other feasible files with a transcript of the virus infected file.

Some viruses are programmed to damage the computing machine by damaging plans, canceling files, or reformatting the difficult disc while others are non designed to make any harm, but merely to retroflex themselves and do their presence known by showing texts, picture, and audio messages.

Viruss typically take up computing machine memory used by legitimate plans.

As a consequence, viruses can frequently do fickle behaviour and can ensue in system clangs. In add-on, many viruses are bug-ridden. The bugs may take to system clangs and informations loss.

There are five recognized types of viruses. They are

File infector viruses

Boot sector viruses

Master boot record viruses

Multipartite viruses ( besides known as polypartite viruses )

Macro viruses

Major web security issues are followerss ;

Protecting webs with firewall

Using a router as a firewall

Using Instrusion Detection Systems ( IDS )

Using web reference interlingual rendition to better security

Protecting a web from worms, viruses and Rootkits

Protecting a web from Spyware and Spam

Implementing wireless security

Undertaking 3.2

A Network Security Policy will reflect the attitude of our organisation. It will be a papers. It will depict the regulations regulating entree to a company ‘s information resources, the enforcement of those regulations, and the stairss taken if regulations are breached. It will depict non merely who can hold entree to which resources, but besides the allowable usage of those resources after they are accessed.

A Network Security Policy will besides protect the organisation lawfully. If no policy exists, training or prosecuting people who misuse or intrude on the web will be more hard and so it will assist web users in our organisation to concentrate on the undertakings they want to carry through instead than how to acquire to informations they need to execute those undertakings.

Therefore, there should be a Nework Security Policy in topographic point in all the networked companies.

Elementss of a Nework Security Policy are followerss ;

Privacy policy

Privacy policy describes what staff, clients, and concern spouses can anticipate for monitoring and coverage web usage.

Acceptable usage of policy

Acceptable usage of policy explains for what purposes web resources can be used.

Authentication policy

Authentication policy describes how users identify themselves to derive entree to web resources. Logon names, watchword conventions, and hallmark methods should be described.

Internet usage policy

Internet usage policy explains what constitutes proper or improper usage of Internet resources.

Entree policy

Entree policy specifies how and when users are allowed to entree web resources. Policies should be for both on-site and distant entree to the web.

Auditing policy

Auditing policy explains the mode in which security conformity or misdemeanors can be verified and the effects for misdemeanors.

Data protection

Data protection outlines the policies for backup processs, virus protection, and catastrophe recovery.

Undertaking 2

Undertaking 2.1: A brief overview of VPN engineerings ( both hardware and package )

What are VPNs?

VPNs mean practical private webs which are impermanent or lasting connexions across a public web such as the Internet alternatively of leased lines to pass on. VPNs usage encoding engineering to convey and have informations. Although VPNs are transmitted across a public web, they are meant to do packages procure. They provide the private connexion between transmitter and receiving system. VPNs became more popular as more employees worked in distant locations.

A tunnel in a typical VPN connexion carries informations firmly from the VPN client to the VPN waiter through the Internet. Therefore a direct point to indicate connexion exists between client and waiter. The tunnel is truly a particular encapsulation of the IP protocol.

VPN waiters can be configured on web OSs as Windows Server 2003 and Linux. VPN waiters can besides be in the signifier of a dedicated device with the purpose of managing VPN connexion or as a package add-on solution to some routers. VPNs waiters must hold at least two web interfaces. They are one for the internal or company web and another which connects to the external or public web.

There are Four Categories of VPN ;

Trusted VPN

Secure VPN

Hybrid VPN

Provider-provisioned VPN

VPN Topology: Three types of VPN are

Remote entree VPN

Intranet VPN and

Extranet VPN

VPN in a Windows Environment

Windows OSs support Point to Indicate Tunneling Protocol ( PPTP ) , a particular TCP/IP protocol. With PPTP, users running Windows OSs can dial up Windows waiters when they are running Routing and Remote Access Service ( RRAS ) . This supports the equivalent of a private encrypted dial up session across the Internet. A VPN could be settled for good across the Internet by renting dedicated lines to an ISP at each terminal of a bipartisan nexus and keep on-going PPTP-based communications across that dedicated nexus.

Windows support a more unafraid VPN protocol called Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol ( L2TP ) get downing from Windows 2000. Working in tandem with IPSec, Windows OSs can utilize PPTP or L2TP to make safe, unafraid VPN connexions through a private bearer or across the Internet. L2TP supports advanced hallmark and encoding engineerings but it requires Windows machines on both sides of any distant connexions.

VPN in Other OS Environments

In add-on to Windows OSs, Linux OSs besides back up both VPN client and VPN waiter applications. VPNs Linux executions typically use PPTP or IPSec and now an L2TP execution is available. One of the most popular VPN solutions for Linux is OpenSwan that is a free downloadable bundle. OpenSwan uses IPSec as the encoding protocol. It is going the default in many Linux versions including Fedora Core 4. The Linux OpenSwan bundle can be discovered at and certification is included in the downloadable package.

VPN waiter connexions to corporate webs for VPN clients are provided by Novell Net Ware along with BorderManager, the Novell firewall. To make a VPN WAN, corporate LANs can be tied together over VPN connexions through the Internet.

Mac OS 9 and subsequently supports VPN client connexions to Windows waiters and they use PPTP or IPSec. Mac OS X Server has a VPN waiter service and it allows Mac OS X, Windows, and UNIX/Linux clients to link to a corporate LAN through the Mac OS X VPN waiter, utilizing PPTP or L2TP.

One manner to supply VPN services to link remote sites is to utilize routers with VPN capableness to make a router-to-router VPN connexion. This VPN connexion uses the Internet to link remote sites with corporate central offices or to link corporate spouses to organize an extranet. In this agreement, the VPN package resides on the router instead than on client systems and it is much less expensive than utilizing leased or dedicated lines to link distant webs.

Advantages and Disadvantages of VPN


Greater scalability

Easy to add/remove users

Reduced long-distance telecommunications costs




Lack of criterions

Understanding of security issues

Unpredictable Internet traffic

Difficult to suit merchandises from different sellers

VPN Benefits

Extends geographic connectivity

Boosts employee productiveness

Improves Internet security

Scales easy

Costss associated with implementing VPN

In house execution

Outsourced execution

Middle Ground execution

Two theoretical accounts available for Quality of Services functionality

Differentiated service theoretical account

Integrated service theoretical account

Undertaking 2.5 ; A subdivision of study on the duties and degree of service required from ISP in order to implement a successful VPN within the company

Duties of ISP

To supply Quality, Reliability, and A Comprehensive Portfolio of Services

To back up the clients among dialup or ADSL broadband entree

To supply concern clients with a pick of leased lines, Web hosting, collocation, dedicated waiters, and application development services

To supply the 24-hour proficient support to all clients.

Degree of Servicess

Puting out to derive the ability to pull off and optimise differentiated degrees of service, EUnet defined its undertaking ends to include:



Comparative Networking Features of Windows and Linux

Networking Features

Window Operation Systems

Linux Operation Systems

Internet Connection Firewall ( ICF )

Used to protect computing machines and place webs connexion.

This is a software-based firewall. It is enabled automatically when the Network Setup Wizard ( below ) is run.

Puting up firewall with default scenes that will work for most webs.

The firewall can besides be enabled or disabled manually through the Network Connections booklet.


Lock everything down.

Merely let surpassing connexions.


Allow surpassing connexions.

Allow certain incoming high ports for point to indicate applications.


Allow surpassing connexions.

Allow entrance ports for selected applications.

Allow entrance ports for point to indicate applications.


“ Get out of my face ” manner.

Laptop manner

Firewall starts without adhering to an interface.

Wireless LAN Enhancements

Increase Ethernet and Wireless Security ( IEEE 802.1X Support ) . Previously wireless LAN networking lacked an easy to expeditiously utilize security solution with a cardinal direction system Microsoft and several Wireless LAN and PC sellers worked with the IEEE to exactly specify IEEE 802.1X, a criterion for port-based web entree control. This is applicable to either Ethernet or Wireless LANs. Microsoft implemented IEEE 802.1X support in Windows XP and worked with radio LAN sellers to back up the criterion in their entree points.

Network Setup Wizard

Is to ease the undertaking of puting up user ‘s web. This ace allows user to configure the Internet connexion the computing machines on user ‘s web will utilize. It enables the Internet Connection Firewall. It configures the web arrangers on user ‘s computing machine and enables the Network Bridge if appropriate, portion files and pressmans and name user ‘s computing machines.

Network Nosologies Features

The Network Diagnostics Web Page and NetSh assistant

Network Connections Support Tab

Network Connection Repair Link

Task Manager Networking Tab

Updated Command Line Network Diagnostics Tool

Internet Connection Sharing ( ICS ) Enhancements

Is to enable sharing of a individual Internet connexion among all of the computing machines on a place or little concern web. The computing machine connected to the Internet would hold ICS enabled and it would supply addressing and web reference interlingual rendition services for all of the computing machines on the web.

Task1.2: Interoperability characteristics of Ubuntu with Microsoft Windows Workstation

Many plans are written for the Windows API. They depend on an execution of that API. Source compatibility of Windows with some of UNIX plans is carried out by manner of POSIX subsystem ( Windows NT and 2000 ) , or Subsystem for UNIX application ( once Interix ) ( 2000, XP, 2003, Vista ) . Linux is a UNIX-like OS, and can run plans that are written for UNIX scheduling criterions. Few plans, nevertheless, are written for assorted models specific to Linux and those normally with a Window port. KOffice runs on Linux and some versions of UNIX and offers limited Microsoft Office compatibility and ( ) , an open-source office application, runs on both Windows and Linux. It is available as a free download consisting of a word processor, a spreadsheet plan, presentation package, a database plan, and a drawing and ploting application. If an organisation is sold on Linux because of its open-source licensing and improved security over some rivals, there are solutions for running Windows applications in Linux. Windows Emulation ( WINE ) allows some Windows plans to run on Linux but sometimes with some bugs. In some organisations, versions of their merchandises work on both Windows and Linux. The installing is that there is an translator bed and the existent plan binary files and so the translator bed runs on the-fly to present the appropriate plan experience to whichever OS is running. Therefore, package can be created independent of the OS by utilizing this method but the translator bed needs to be configured for the platform. VMware is a virtualization plan. It allows one computing machine to run two or more OSs at the same time. VMware package permits an full Windows OS along with applications to run on a Linux desktop. Therefore, user still needs the Windows OS licence by utilizing VMware. Many Microsoft libraries have non been ported to other OSs but many Microsoft ‘s models can be replaced by opposite numbers in other OSs. GNU toolchain has been ported on Windows, GTK, Qt and many other libraries and many undertakings already have Windowss physiques. Software which is written in cross platform linguistic communication and models are normally easy ported.

Finally Linux has come a long manner. But its suitableness for the desktop depends on the expertness of the computing machine and web technician and the compatibility of applications the organisation needs to run.

Task-2.2: Design of a suited VPN within the Bank

Fig 2.2.1 Design of a suited VPN within the Bank

Undertaking -2.3

The followerss are the demands to make the Bank ‘s VPN



Processor E 7500Core 2 Duo 2.93 GHz

Main Board MSI P43-C51 ( Intel P43, Sound+GbLAN )

Hard Disk Seagate 250GB SATA2 7200rpm with Fan

RAM Kingston 2GB DDR3 1333 MHz

Graphic Card ASUS 1 GB 9500GT

Monitor Acer X233H 23 ” Wide LCD

ROM Drive ASUS 22x SATA DVD Writer

Keyboard Gaming Multimedia Keyboard

Mouse UTOPIA AMU-100 Optical Mouse

Casing ORLANDO Casing ( OLDL-604VA )

Network Card NIC


Processor E5300 Pentium Dual-Core 2.6 GHz

Main Board ASUS P5P41D ( Intel G41, Sound+GbLAN )

Hard Disk Seagate 250 GB SATA2 7200 revolutions per minute with Fan

RAM Kingston 1GB DDR 2 800MHz

Graphic Card Intel GMA X3100

Monitor Samsung P2050 20 ” Wide LCD

ROM Drive Pioneer 22x SATA DVD Writer

Key Board, Mouse PS2

Network Card NIC

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Trojan Horse Worms And Other Viruses Computer Science Essay. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from

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