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Trial of Verres

Hyperbolic language: 2 mark and 1 example
Showed seriousness of Verres’ crimes
Showed importance of the case
(Here is a man whose life and actions the world has already condemned)

Relation to wider society: 3 marks
Related corruption to society
Prosecution would help society
Evokes a decision against Verres

Flattery: 3 marks
Emphasised honesty of the court members and Glabrio
Appealed to their better nature
Evokes support for his cause against Verres

Undermining of justice: 4 marks
Verres thought he could use bribery
Cicero asks if they want justice
Verres thinks justice is a minor obstacle
Evokes hatred against him

Sarcasm: 3 marks
Emphasised the stupidity of Verres
He thought justice wouldn’t be done
Mocks how obvious the crimes were

Strong adjectives: 1 mark and 1 example
Reinforces points he made
(vigorous, ravaged, devastated, outrageous)

Personal pronouns: 1 mark and 1 example
Involves certain figures and makes it relevant to them
(their eyes are upon you now)

Rule of 3: 3 marks
Reinforced points he made, desire to high corruption and dedication to public service

What role did Cicero play in the trial? 1 mark
Prosecutor

What role did Verres play in the trial? 1 mark
Defendant

What role did Hortensius play in the trial? 1 mark
Verres’ lawyer

What were Verres’ crimes? 11 marks
Controlled all legal cases
Stole 40 million sesterces from Sicily
Committed sexual crimes
Treated Romans like slaves
Starved Romans
Allowed pirates to attack
Cancelled inheritances
Robbed farmers
Plundered buildings
Acquitted criminals through bribery
Treated allies as enemies

What role did Glabrio play in the trial? 1 mark
Praetor and president of the extortion court

What role did Carbo play in the trial? 2 marks
Former governor of Gaul
Verres was quaestor and stole public money

What role did Dolabella play in the trial? 1 mark
Governor in Asia Minor, where Verres also served

What role did Curio play in the trial? 3 marks
Verres’ friend
Congratulated him when Hortensius was consul for 69
Implies that he was acquitted

What role did Marcus Metellus play in the trial? 1 mark
Praetor and president of the extortion court for 69 BC

What role did Quintus Verres play in the trial? 2 mark
Verres’ relative
Bribed 500,000 sesterces to block Cicero’s aedileship for 69 BC

What role did Quintus Metellus play in the trial? 1 mark
Consul for 69 BC

What role did Lucius Metellus play in the trial? 1 mark
Governor of Sicily for 69 BC

What role did the senators play in the trial? 1 mark
Judges of the extortion court for the trial

Number of speeches written against Verres: 1 mark
6

Key events in Cicero’s life prior to the trial: 4 marks
Studied rhetoric in Athens
Met Atticus
Entered cursus honorum as quaestor in 76
Married Terentia

What was the date of the trial? 1 mark
70 BC

Age and rank of Cicero at the time: 2 marks
36 years old
Senator of quaestorian rank

Ways in which Verres attempted to hinder Cicero: 7 marks
Put a fake prosecutor
Occupy the court with another case
Postponed trial
Bribed judges and Quintus Verres to block Cicero’s aedileship
Attempted murder
Set up traps for him

Cicero’s characteristics before the Roscius trial: 6 marks
Low expectations
Novus Homo
No personal danger
Able to twist the truth
Unknown
Last resort

Cicero’s characteristics before the Verres trial: 6 marks
High expectations
Suo Anno
Risk of ‘K’ branding
Had to work with given material
Pre-eminent lawyer
First choice

Similarities between trials: 3 marks
Opposed against better lawyers
Attacks the senate
Focuses on corruption

Why did Cicero take the case? 8 marks
Can’t refuse requests from Sicilian protegees
Build up Sicilian clientele
Felt bad for victims
Good publicity for aedileship
Challenge Hortensius’ supremacy in the courts
Wanted Verres’ role in the Senate
Rewards available
Wanted reform (he was popularis)

Benefits of the Verres trial for the senate: 5 R marks
Recover lost dignitas of court
Regain favour of the Romans
Remove bad reputation
Return to old morals
Rid of Verres!

Disadvantages of the Verres trial for the senate: 4 marks
Cements idea of corruption
Lessens reputation outside Rome
Still have Verres!
Hortensius

Similarities between Verres and Pro-Roscius trial
Opposed against better lawyers
Attacks the senate
Focuses on corruption

What did Cicero do to make sure the trial went smoothly? 5 marks
Personally collected evidence in Sicily
Had to be quick
Denied bribery rumours
Found witnesses in 50 days

Techniques Cicero used in the trial: 4 marks
Crowd for publicity
Rhetoric speeches
Questioned witnesses together
Hyperbolic extension of dangers to praetor

Obstacles Cicero had to overcome for Verres’ trial: 7 marks
Bribery rumours
Hortensius elected consul with Patron Metellus
Metellus brother was praetor of 69
Verres brother succeeded him in Sicily
Verres spent money against Cicero
Verres went into voluntary exile
Verres was in court for another trial

Why did the Sicilians want Cicero as their prosecutor? 8 marks
Quaestor 5 years ago
Honest reputation
Many Sicilians in his clientele
Patron of many Sicilians
Pre-eminent lawyer since Roscius case
Supported interest of business community (equestrian)
Member of the senate
Wasn’t part of Verres’ clique

Description of opponents and Verres’ behaviour: 4 marks
Governor of Sicily for 3 years
Graphic account of schemes to avoid justice
Cicero claimed he thwarted all
Publicised rottenness of Senatorial administration

Alignment with Pompey: 4 marks
Made towards end of first speech ‘renowned and courageous man’
Trying to persuade court that reform will enhance the Senate, not diminish it
Carefully positioning himself

Verres’ tactics:
Baskets of Sicilian money to bribe tribes not to vote Cicero as aedile
First years profits for himself
Second years for defence
Third years to bribe the judges
Tried to manipulate trials: proposed 2 day shorter inquiry in governor Achaia with no intention of investigator ever leaving Brundisium
Attempt to delay trial from 5th August till the following year

How did Cicero put the jury on trial? 7 marks
Claimed trial was a unique opportunity to prove no corrupt and restore dignitas back to courts and Senate
Threatens that Verres’ acquittal would be seen as proof of their corruption
Devotes little of speech to Verres’ Sicilian crimes but of his un-Roman activities
Highlights from his early career -irrelevant
Spends much time on cronies’ machinations to delay the prosecution
Flattery president of court and several individual jurors emphasising their integrity
Careful not to present himself as attacking the senate but defending it from the powerful groups within

How did Cicero challenge the trial? 4 marks
Gave examples of miscarriages of justice since under senatorial control
Emphasised peoples interest in decision
Reiterated that if acquitted the only explanation would be corruption
Exhorted jury to seize the moment (carpe diem)

Public fears: 3 marks
Verres’ behaviour was so disgraceful
Senate would inevitably be disgraced
Senate would lose control of the courts

What was at stake for Cicero? 1 mark
He needed to canvass as much support during the case to help him achieve his goal of becoming consul

What happened after the trial? 4 marks
Cicero published all his speeches (including the ones he didn’t present to the jury)
Became Rome’s leading orator
Gained a bigger clientela and wealth through gifts, loans and legacies
Furthered his political career

What was the outcome of the trial? 3 marks
Defeated Hortensius
Successfully positioned as politician of principle with progressive policies to ensure fairness and efficiency of republican government
Successfully showed the equites that he would support them working along with the Senate (concordia ordinum)

Verres background:
Born c. 115 bc—died 43), Roman magistrate notorious for his misgovernment of Sicily. His trial exposed the extent of official corruption in the Roman provinces during the late republic.
Verres was the son of an undistinguished senator. He became quaestor (financial administrator) to the consul Gnaeus Carbo, and, when civil war broke out in 83 bc, he embezzled military funds and joined the forces of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. In 80 Verres was legate (senior officer) on the staff of Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella, governor of Cilicia. Together they plundered the provincials until, in 78, Dolabella was tried at Rome and convicted, mainly on Verres’ evidence. In 74 Verres used lavish bribery to obtain the city praetorship (the highest office after the consulship) and then abused his authority for personal gain.

From what class did the ‘gentlemen of the jury’ come from?
Senatorial

Which province had complained about Verres?
Sicilians

In which particular court room was Verres on trial?
Extortion

How ‘industrious’ (line 4) and ‘vigilantly watchful’ (line 7) had Cicero been in preparing his prosecution of Verres?
Give the reasons for your views and support them with
details from Cicero’s account of his preparations in Against Verres 1.

13 marks
SILACAQVVVVVV

Spent 50 days collecting evidence in Sicily
Investigator into Governor of Achaea didn’t get to Brundisium
Lucius Metellus was Governor of Sicily (intimidating)
Aware of immoral acts at the same time
Curio congratulated Verres that Hortensius was consul (guaranteed acquittal)
Aedileship campaign prevented full attention to trial
Questioned witnesses together to prevent lengthy trial
Verres exiled (voluntary) in Massilia before final verdict
Verres set traps by land and sea
Verres’ crimes were obvious so easily find evidence
Verres bribed Marcus Metellus 400,000 sesterces to block Cicero’s aedileship campaign
Verres inquired Governor of Achaea (his trial would come first)
Verres wanted to postpone it so Hortensius, Quintus Metellus and Marcus Metellus were at the trial

How comprehensive was Cicero’s attack on Verres in Against Verres 1? Give the reasons for your views and support them with details from Against Verres 1.
Delayed end of speeches so defence had no time to respond
Questioned witnesses together to avoid lengthy trial
Games postpone trial until Hortensius, Quintus Metellus and Marcus Metellus were at the trial
Summarises Verres’ crimes as tabloids to show un-Roman values
Reminder of earlier crimes shows un-Roman values (impiety, treachery, corruption)
Doesn’t detail sexual crimes out of respect for victims Verres’ plots in acquittal since he returned from Sicily (attempted to buy the judges)
Verres started rumours against him and the Republic (with secret evidence)
Cicero dismissed them through informants
I am the defender of the senate against subversion of powerful group within it
Rhetorical speech showed dangers to Cicero and state
Hyperbolically extended to Romans and world
Aligns himself with Pompey and reforming programme (equestrian)

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