Translation Approaches Essay
The development of trade and industry has always given rise to changes in the evolution of communities, bringing about new social forms and stratification of society. This in its turn accelerated the appearance of businesses and factories, arrival of new professions, and urbanization. Since the times of Perestroika (which was started in 1989 by Mikhail Gorbatchev) Russian society has been experiencing dramatic changes that affected the country’s politics, economy and social life. In the past 15 years people’s attitudes to certain things have changed gradually but profoundly.
We have gotten so used to these new attitudes that it’s hard to believe it hasn’t always been like this. With the arrival of the 21st century we have experienced changes in the economic, legal, technological and other areas which affect our everyday lives. Social changes entail linguistic transformations. Russians in their everyday life got used to certain terms to the point that they no longer consider them “terms”—ATM machine (банкомат); deposit (депозит); account (счет); contract (контракт); download (загружать); etc.
“The terminology of international development is constantly evolving as new socioeconomic concepts emerge. In over 10 years … the writer has witnessed the appearance of a number of neologisms, either entirely new terms or established terms used with a different meaning … “1. In different societies this process may take different directions depending on the needs and wants of its people. In Russian society an explosive growth of terms pertaining to the economic and computer areas can be observed.
Russians largely borrow these terms from the languages of countries with a longer capitalistic and technological tradition (like the USA, for example), thus bringing English words and expressions into the language. Though some of these borrowings have corresponding equivalents in Russian, the English terms are being extensively used by the population, as further evidence of the social changes that have taken place in the country (a similar process would have been inconceivable in the cold war period). Translation is undoubtedly a social phenomenon.
Translator’s choices are influenced not only by the source language text and the peculiarities of the target audience, but also by the era to which the translator belongs—in translating for the modern reader it is necessary to take into consideration creative traditions, literary norms and conventions that are familiar to the reader of a certain society. Nowadays, due to various political changes and dynamic economic and technological growth, the Russian language has acquired numerous terms, which very quickly migrate from the class of neologisms to the category of familiar and frequently used words.
Few of these words (computer terms, for example) do not possess the corresponding equivalent in Russian; many of them do have a Russian (very often explanatory) equivalent. For instance, such nouns as brand, merger, summit, default, deposit, site, spam, tuner, web surfing and adjectives as local, creative, top have equivalents in Russian, but the new “foreign” word is usually preferred (the tendency as a rule is started by the mass media). this may be explained by the fact that a borrowing often has a semantic “compactness,” whereas a Russian equivalent has a descriptive character—in some cases a whole sentence must be used.
So translators have to deal with the problem of either choosing a “popular” borrowing or go with the equivalent already existing in the language. Translators of a “new generation” prefer not to translate so-called Americanisms and foreign food names, as they are familiar to people of all countries, and “the translator no longer has the absolute need to always find a translation of a term in the target language if this would make the target-language text lose credibility. This is … called excessive translation.
An excessive translation is a translation that fails to foreignise/exoticise, i. e. , use source-language terms in the target-language text, to the degree that is now acceptable”2. Those educated in the 60s, 50s and earlier strongly believe that foreign equivalents should be avoided, especially when a corresponding term or notion exists in the language: “In very rare cases, only when it’s absolutely necessary for the narration of a character to use a foreign word, a Russian equivalent is always better and more appropriate.
This holds true for newspapers and journals, and is hundredfold more important in fiction. “3 Certainly appearing of new criteria to what should be called an adequate translation affected the translation of fiction. That’s why new translations of novels already translated into Russian appeared recently. The most popular ones are the translations of F. S. Fitzgerald’s novels “The Great Gatsby” and “Tender is the Night.
” The general tendency is a frequent use of anglicisms in the TL, even though they are not present in the text of the original: “Now it has become a summer resort of notable and fashionable people; in 1925 it was almost deserted after its English clientele went north in April; only the cupolas of dozen old villas rotted like water lilies among the massed pines”4. The phrase “a summer resort of notable and fashionable people” in Russian corresponds to “many various bungalows have been built” (Это сейчас тут понастроили много разных бунгало).
For no obvious reason, the translator uses a nowadays “fashionable” world “bungalow”, which is not even present in the original English text. Other examples might include the following translating inconsistencies (“fraternity” was translated into Russian translation by the equivalent of “student corporations”; “market umbrella” was translated as “huge tent”). In all cases Russian equivalents could be used (as were in the previous translation by E. D. Kalashnikova).
There is also a number of colloquial words and expressions unnecessarily used in the new translation: “cafe” is translated as “kafeshka” (a diminutive form for cafe); “specious reasoning” is translated as “tufta” (a colloquial word, meaning “malarkey, crap”); “horse-trader” as “torgash” (a derisive synonym of “merchant”, could be translated as “torgovets” or, as it was in Kalashinkova’s version, “barishnik”); “world’s bazaar” received an equivalent of “world market” (it sounded so much nicer in Kalashnikova’s translation as “life’s fair”—”jarmarka zhizni”).
The only positive trend in the new translation philosophy is that, instead of generalizing or omitting certain notions (which didn’t exist in the Soviet society), the exact specific equivalent can be used: “terrier” is now present in the Russian language, although in the first translation it had to be translated as “little dog” (pjosik); “cauliflower” had to be translated as “cabbage”. The use of these nouns is possible thanks to the economic transformations on the Russian market, not because of a translator’s talent.
First translations of the novels that weren’t published in Russia before due to a number of reasons, for example, explicit descriptions of sexuality, have also appeared. John Updike’s novels, known for his “pointillist style”5 filled with sharp realistic descriptions, have just recently become available to the Russian reader. On the whole, the artistic qualities of Updike’s style are not lost in these translations. However, certain translating choices are not very clear mostly due to the fact that the effect produced by the original is not the same as the one produced by the translation.
In “Rabbit, Run”, Updike’s most famous novel, there are instances when women characters appear less appealing in Russian than in the original. Rabbit’s wife, who, being compared to his mistress, is described as “mysterious, an opaque and virginal wife”6 in Russian turned into an “incomprehensible, sullen and indifferent boulder”7 (непонятной, угрюмой, безучастной ко всему глыбой)—clearly, the translator is “taking” the mistress’s side in this situation. The same mistress, when Rabbit is thinking about returning to her, reasonably inquires “How would you support me? “.
8 In Russian this stylistically neutral phrase changes into a rude vulgar expression meaning “On what a fig would you feed me? ” (Na kakie shishi ti budesh’ menja kormit’)9. The references that we have about certain phenomena are not always taken into consideration. When describing the Springers the author remarks on some of their qualities, which are “thoroughly meshed into the strategies of middle-class life. ” 10 In Russian “strategies of middle-class life” become “petit bourgeois way of life”11 (мелкобуржуазный образ жизни)—an expression that has a very negative connotation for the Russian reader.
Somehow, in other situations, rather emotional English equivalents are substituted by neutral Russian words. In the phrase “The reason Fosnacht keeps getting Billy all this expensive crap is probably he feels guilty for leaving him”12 the word “crap” which shows Rabbit’s negative and scornful attitude to the discussed problem is translated by the noun “things” (shtuki), in translation the whole communicative aim of this situation is lost. 13 Russian linguists, who assign great importance to the communicative function of the process of translation, are certainly concerned about the quality of the published translations.
Maybe this is one of the reasons why so many articles devoted to the problems of Linguistic Pragmatics are being published. Linguistic Pragmatics underlines the necessity of interpreting the situation and analyzing the communicative possibilities of how it can be perceived by those involved in this communicative process, thus providing the basis for human interaction. The translation, viewed within the framework of Linguistic Pragmatics, concentrates not on the semantic meaning of the SL text, but on its communicative aim.
Questions about translation quality push Applied Linguistics to a new stage of development (because it includes the science of translation). Arguments on how to treat numerous neologisms and borrowings arriving into the Russian language have revived the advancement of Lexicography—the science of dictionary compiling. Online dictionaries gain more significance for both specialists and amateur users. As online dictionaries can be regularly updated, their users won’t have to deal with the problem of outdated vocabulary, which will still exist in the database, but with the necessary markers.
Specialized vocabulary is duly marked and all the possible combinations are represented in the database, for e. g. the noun “balance” has many meanings pertaining to different spheres such as aviation, automobile industry, banking, biology, mining, bookkeeping, etc. , but hyperlinks take users to the needed meaning in seconds. Therefore in the 21st century, when effective communication has become the center of our professional lives, the importance of finding better ways of translating is increasing.
Due to globalization and establishment of transnational corporations, new criteria appear of what can be regarded as an adequate translation. Introducing neologisms and borrowings into translation of articles from magazines and scientific journals might be viewed as a modern and “open-minded” approach; however translators should be extremely careful about not overloading fiction with unnecessary foreign expressions. It is important to remember at whom the translation is targeted and what communicative effect it is supposed to produce.
The debates about what can be considered an equivalent translation give rise to a new stage of development of Applied Linguistics and other linguistic sciences, which are becoming more and more concerned about achieving communicative excellence in the modern world. Formation of English Neologisms Introduction Distinctive features of news headlines Formation of english neologisms Use of Translation Methods When Translating News Headlines Common Methods of Newspaper Headlines Translation Peculiar Methods of Newspaper Headlines Translation 1. The use of word-formative means (suffixes, prefixes, composition).
Among the most productive neologism-formative suffixes are –ian, -ation: Ballistician – специалист по баллистике ( as musician, physician, etc); Commodification – использование денег в качестве товара, который можно продавать и обменивать на другой ( as simplification).
Other productive neologism-formative suffixes are: -ship brinkmanship – балансирование на грани войны; craftsmanship – искусство воздействия на массы; showmanship – умение показать товар лицом; пустить пыль в глаза -dom bangdom – организованный бандитизм; bogdom – жизненный тупик; suckerdom – тунеядец -ize itemize – рассматривать по пунктам; institutionalize – узаконивать; unionize – быть членом профсоюза Neologisms formed via composition are constantly appearing in the English language as well: Laptop (= notebook) – переносной компьютер (дословно – компьютер, который держат на коленях или в виде блокнота); Know-how – ноу-хау, технология; Stay-in – пикетирование;
Sit-in – сидячая забастовка; Buy-in –выгодная сделка (покрытие расходов за счет продавца на бирже); Shut-down – закрытие, ликвидация (завода); Brain-drain – утечка мозгов; Has-been – политический деятель, утративший свое влияние.
Here the challenge for a translator is to preserve the style of a news headline and at the same time give an adequate russian variant of a headline: “Russia: the brain-drain drains technological progress” – “Россия : утечка мозгов тормозит развитие высоких технологий”. («International Herald Tribune»).
2. Recomprehension of the existing words. It means that well-known words acquire new meanings. For example, the word summit which is frequently used in news headlines and is traditionally rendered into Russian вершина, высшая точка acquired the new meaning in the late 70-is: встреча на высшем уровне, встреча руководителей государств.
Here is another example. The medical term domino denotes an operation during which a surgeon transplants patient A with a heart and lungs of the donor who has died of brain hemorrhage, and patient B is transplanted with an old heart of patient A. This neologism emerged in the 80-s as a result of the re-comprehension of the word domino — the game in which each die is divided into two equal parts. The basic meaning of the word colour-blind is человек, не различающий цвета, дальтоник. In the last quarter of the 20-th century it acquired the new meaning – человек, который не разделяет людей по расовой и национальной (этнической) принадлежности.
The word shuttle originated as челнок (как деталь швейной машины). Via recomprehension of its original meaning it acquired several new ones: космический корабль многоразового использования (shuttle spaceship); торговец, совершающий рейсы за товарами в соседние страны и получающий прибыль на разнице в цене (shuttle trader). A big amount of neologisms formed in this way have appeared in computer terminology: Web – всемирная паутина (Интернет); Mouse – мышь; Site – сайт (страница в Интернете); Browser – браузер (от гл. to browse – блуждать); Serve – сервер (от to serve – обслуживать).
When making a translation of a news headline containing a neologism formed by means of recomprehension it is recommended either to keep to the method of descriptive translation or give the transliteration of the neologism with the following explanation which as a rule is to be found in the beginning of the article : “The country’s fifth domino was carried out in Arizona” – “В американском штате Аризона проведена пятая в стране операция «домино»”. («Sunday Times»). (The set-out of the russian variant reads: Домино – медицинский термин, который стал активно употребляться не так уж давно.
Он обозначает операцию по пересадке органов, при которой пациенту А пересаживают новое сердце и легкие от получившего кровоизлияние в мозг донора, а пациенту Б пересаживают старое сердце пациента А). 3. Abbreviations and acronyms. Here are the abbreviations most widely used in news headlines: S. W. I. F. T. – The Society for Worldwide Inter-bank Financial Telecommunications; TCB – take care of business – преуспевать в бизнесе; Benelux – Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg – Бенилюкс; CCFF – Compensatory and Contingency Financing Facility.
(Механизм компенсационного и чрезвычайного финансирования, ССФФ); CPI – Consumer Price Index (Индекс Потребительских Цен, ИПЦ); EFTA – European Free Trade Association (Европейская Ассоциация Свободной Торговли, ЕАСТ); EMS – European Monetary System (Европейская Валютная Система, ЕВС); IBRD – International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Международный Банк Реконструкции и Развития, Всемирный Банк); IMF – International Monetary Fund (Международный Валютный Фонд, МВФ);
OECD – Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (Организация Экономического Сотрудничества и Развития, ОЭСР); SDR – Special Drawing Rights (международная расчетная единица СДР); SNA – System of National Accounts (Система национальных счетов, СНС); VER – Voluntary Export Restraints (добровольное ограничение экспорта): “OECD board meeting takes place on Monday” – “В понедельник состоялось заседание членов Организации экономического сотрудничества и развития” («Business Week»). Semantic transformations are inescapable when dealing with news headlines.
The incentive for it is a huge amount of the so called headline vocabulary in the English language, often referred to as headlinese, which demands certain modifications when making a translation. Here is a list of words from the «headline slang»: ban, bid, claim, crash, cut, dash, hit, move, pact, plea, probe, quit, quiz, rap, Red, rush, slash. These short words which can be easily inserted into a headline are characterized by a wide field of their use.
Thus, bid is not only ‘предложение’,’заявка’,’попытка’, but also ‘шаг’,’инициатива’, ‘усилие’; hit —not only ‘наносить удар’,’причинять ущерб’,’попадать в цель’,but ‘критиковать’,’обрушиваться на кого-либо, разносить в пух и в прах’ ; pact — not only ‘пакт,соглашение,договор’, but ‘сделка’, ‘договоренность’,’сговор’; probe — not only ‘зондирование’, but ‘любое следствие,расследование’,’проверка’ as well; quit —not only ‘покидать’,’прекращать’, but also ‘уезжать’,’выводить войска’, ‘эвакуироваться’; quiz — not only производить опрос’,but ‘допрашивать’,’интервьюировать,задавать вопросы’.
It is important to point out that such words have already almost utterly replaced their synonyms in news headlines. Thus, ban taken the place of forbid and prohibit; rap — of criticize, reprimand, interrogate. Wide semantics of headline words demand context-conditioned transformations in the translation. In the majority of cases concrete definition (hyponimic transformation) takes place in the Russian variant.
The accurate sense of the headline is as usual revealed in the beginning of the article: “Minebea Fous Trafalgar-Glen Bid”(The Independent). Comp. The article’s outset : Minebea Corp, of Japan, the world’s largest maker of precision bearings, has foiled a hostile takeover attempt by a US-British financial group, the Kyodo News Service reported Friday. Here the outset takes away the polysemy of the headline word replacing it by the corresponding equivalent which is included into the concretizing and defining context : Trafalgar-Glen Bid — a hostile takeover attempt by a US-British financial group.
In that way the translation may sound as follows: :”Провал попытки англо-американской монополии поглотить японскую фирму” or “Провал попытки подчинить японскую фирму англо-американскому контролю”. Polysemic interprepretation of a news headline can also be conditioned by the use of certain syntactic constructions, nominal phrases in particular, which can be interpreted in different ways, for instance : “Benn Blasts Tory Nuclear Cover-up”.
(The Times). It is impossible to translate the phrase “Тоrу Nuclear Cover-up” without the context. Alternative versions are possible because of the bearing word of the phrase – cover up – derived from the phrasal verb to cover up — ‘тщательно скрывать,’покрывать кого-либо’. But the main difficulty originates from the elliptic character of the whole phrase.
The clue to the accurate interpretation of the phrase lies in the article’s outset : Labour MP Тоnу Benn last night accused the government of “totally misleading”the British people about nuclear power. Thus, cover-up means here not merely “утаивание”, but also “дезинформация”, and the omitted element in the nominal phrase above is power (“Tory nuclear cover-up”—”Tory nuclear power cover-up”). The following variants of translation are possible: “Бенн обвиняет тори в дезинформации по вопросам атомной энергии” or “Бенн разоблачает дезинформацию тори по вопросам атомной энергии”. In the instance above the main difficulty connected with the interpretation of the nominal phrase is determined by its elliptic structure.
In the following news headline elliptic structure is combined with the polysemy of semantic relations between the phrase components: “Power Station Action Starts Today” (“The Times”). In this case power station can be realated to action as : 1) the agent, 2) the object, 3) the adverbial modifier of place. What is more, the phrase might be supposed to be characterized by semantic incompletness.
The answers to these questions are to be found in the set-out: Today’s Start of national industrial action in Britain’s power stations forms the background to the biennial Conferences of the electricians’ union in Scarborough. Hence power station is related to action as an adverbial modifier and the element omitted is the word combination industrial action ‘забастовка’.
Thus the Russian variants may be as follows: “Забастовки на английских электростанциях”или “Английские электрики бастуют”. It is important to notice the essential difference between Russian and English news headlines. This difference mainly denotes the extent to which the article contents are reflected in the headline.
The authors of the British and American news article keep to the following principle when creating headlines: : “Headlines should tell the story”. Thus a headline is the compressed to the limit variant of the main text :”Dusseldorfs State Gallery Proves a Mausoleum for Mummified Modernism”; “First Chicago Bank Says Profit Rose 58% for Initial Period. ” (The Sun).
The Russian news headlines are based on a different principle: as a rule they place an emphasis on one element of the text contents – “Захват заложников в Беслане” («Вечерний Минск)» . In such cases additional information is required because the method of literal translation does not guarantee an adequate English variant.
Common Methods of Newspaper Headlines Translation Introduction Distinctive features of news headlines Formation of english neologisms The Use of Translation Methods When Translating News Headlines Common Methods of Newspaper Headlines Translation Peculiar Methods of Newspaper Headlines Translation 1. Inversion. This transformation is demanded by a fixed word order in the English sentence.
It is often conditioned on the degree of compatibility freedom in both languages : “Most favoured nation trading status” – “Статус наибольшего благоприятствования в торговле”. («The Economist»). Polynomial word combinations which are frequently used for creating news headlines in the British and American periodicals often include attributes which represent a full sentence: “The no-room-at-the-inn incident” – “Инцидент, связанный с отсутствием мест в гостинице” («The Sun»). The principle of the translation of such news headlines includes the following steps : 1. To figure out the bearing word; 2. To select semantic groups; 3. To make a translation starting with the bearing word. 2.
The replacement of parts of speech or parts of a sentence. In some cases the replacement of certain parts of speech or members of sentence is required in order to achieve adequate translation: “Bill Clinton faces bypass operation ” – “Биллу Клинтону предстоит перенести шунтирование” (“International Herald Tribune”).
It is the syntactical and semantic transformation that the sentence undergoes in the above case – the definite clause is replaced by the indefinite one due to the peculiarities of the Russian language. Thus, the simple predicate faces in the English headline is substituted for the complex verbal predicate предстоит перенести in the Russian variant. 3.
Word addition is required in order to clear up the meaning of a headline and deliver adequate translation: “For Bush it’s the man (not a detailed plan) that matters” – “Для Буша важен не столько детальный план, сколько человек, способный выполнить его” («International Herald Tribune»). The laconism of the English language allows to omit the subordinate clause we add to the Russian variant without any significant changes in the meaning. As one can observe, apart from the method of word addition the method of inversion is also used in this case.
Another example is: «Feel the hate, fear and loathing in New York» — «Почувчтвуйте ненависть, страх и отвращение, царяшие в Нью-Йорке». («International Herald Tribune»); “U. S. reservist convicted over abuse in Iraqi prison” – “Американский резервист осужден за жестокое обращение с заключенными в иракской тюрьме”. («International Herald Tribune»). 4. Literal translation can take place in case of the similarity of the syntactical structure and word order in the English and the Russian sentence. In this case the English news headline may be rendered into Russian without any significant changes.
Here it is possible to omit an article or any other functional word or to change the semantic character of a word. Literal translation should not be mixed with a word-for-word translation which always leads to a mistake. Exampler of the use of literal translation method: «Lebanon extends term of its president» — «Ливан продлевает срок правления президента». («International Herald Tribune »). The Use of Translation Methods When Translating News Headlines Introduction Distinctive features of news headlines Formation of english neologisms.
The Use of Translation Methods When Translating News Headlines Common Methods of Newspaper Headlines Translation Peculiar Methods of Newspaper Headlines Translation 1) The structure of news headlines often includes free word combinations. Thus, their peculiarities are worth considering when translating a headline. In free word combinations words preserve their meanings.
That is why when translating a free word combination it is necessary to know the translation of each of its components. In case there are no corresponding linguistic items in the Russian language to the English ones the translation method to be used is called replication. Replication means that all the components of a word combination are rendered without any changes.
Thanks to the method of replication there is a huge amount of international notions which are widely used in news headlines: • Shuttle diplomacy — челночная дипломатия; • Vicious circle – порочный круг; • Head of the government – глава правительства; • Free economic zone – свободная экономическая зона;
• Maldistribution of costs – неправильное распределение затрат; • Jobless rate – уровень безработицы: «Jobless rate tips lower in France» – «Во Франции снизился уровень безработицы. » («International Herald Tribune»). It should be noted however that replication does not mean mere mechanical rendering of the meanings of a free word combination components.
These components often stay in complicated relationships with each other. Even the most simple attributive groups which coincide in their structure with the Russian combinations “прилагательное+существительное” (A+N: Adjective+Noun) can be difficult to translate because:
1. An English word (adjective in the function of an attribute) can be translated in different ways depending on the meaning of a noun that follows: • Public opinion – общественное мнение; • Public debt – государственный долг; • Public scandal – публичный скандал: «Public debt of Lybia increases by 2,8 % over 8 months» – «Государственный долг Ливии увеличился за 8 месяцев на 2,8 % » («The Economist»). 2.
The Russian variant bears a preposition: • Europian securiy – безопасность в Европе; • Stateless citizen – человек без гражданства; • Terrorist trial – суд над террористами; • Commercial revolution – революция в сфере рынка: „Who is to be responsible for European Security? “ – „Кто должен нести ответственность за безопасность в Европе? “(„The Times“).
3. Components of an attributive group are shifted: • Working expectancy – ожидаемая продолжительность трудовой деятельности; • Administrative efficiency – умелое руководство: «Crisis overcome due to administrative efficiency» — «Благодаря умелому руководству кризис преодолен». («International Herald Tribune »).
2)News headlines can be well characterized by the frequent use of phraseological units. Phraseological units are more or less stable word combinations the meaning of which is determined by the whole unit but not by the meanings of each of its components: • It’s high time – давно пора;
• Take your time – не торопитесь; • Help yourself – угощайтесь: «A new delicious production of “Kaligula”: theatrical epicures, please help yourself» — «Новая изысканная постановка «Калигулы» — угощение для театральных гурманов» («The Daily Telegraph»). British and American news headlines are rich in both figurative and non-figurative phraseological units. Non-figurative phraseological units are also called fraseological combinations.
The components in them preserve their meanings but combine with certain words only, that is why it is impossible to change them ad arbitruim: • To take measures – принимать меры; • To make a decision – принимать решение; • To achieve results – добиваться результатов; • To pay attention – обращать внимание (свое); • To draw attention – обращать внимание (чье-то): «Troops start storming school in Beslan – who makes decision? » – «Кто принял решение начать штурм школы в Беслане? » («International Herald Tribune»).
The translation of non-figurative phraseological expressions into Russian can be carried out in two different ways: The 1st method – the expression is rendered into one Russian word: • To take a risk – рисковать; • To have a rest – отдыхать; • To take offence – обидеться;
• To take a nap – вздремнуть: «Does NTT general director take big risks? » — «Серьезно ли рискует генеральный директор Эн-ти-ти? » («The Times”). The 2d method – a phraseological unit is rendered into equivalent combinations (absolute and relative): a) absolute equivalents: o shadow cabinet – теневой кабинет; o to hit the target – попасть в цель; o golden share – золотая акция; o to put an end to – положить конец, преодолеть; o the root of the trouble – корень зла; o to read between lines – читать между строк: “Terrorism – where root of trouble to be found” – “Терроризм – в чем кроется корень зла? ” («International Herald Tribune»). b) relative equivalents:
o to take into account – принимать во внимание; o to make a point – обратить особое внимание; o to jump at conclusions – делать поспешные выводы; o moment of silence – минута молчания; o ups-and-downs – взлеты и падения; o at the world’s end – на краю света; o think tank – мозговой центр; o token strike – предупредительная забастовка: «Ups-and-downs of Rolex: brief outlook on history» — «Взлеты и падения Ролекса: взгляд на историю компании» («Business Week»).
All in all, to whatever extent the components of a phraseological unit might be semantically connected, the main rule when making a translation is to observe the norms of the Russian language and avoid literal translation and violation of the Russian set expressions. Figurative phraseological units are also known as idioms. Idioms can be often found in news headlines as well.
An idiom is a set expression (conversational formula) the meaning of which does not arise from the sum of its components’ meanings: o through thick and thin –во что бы то ни стало; o tooth and nail – не жалея сил, засучив рукава; o it’s raining cats and dogs – дождь льет как из ведра; o to be caught red-handed – быть пойманным на месте преступления: «US guardsman caught red-handed» — «Американский караульный пойман на месте преступления» («International Herald Tribune»). When translating idioms one ought to use their Russian equivalents.