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Karnoven suggests a training intensity of between 60-75% of maximal heart rate reserve for the average athlete. This can be adapted to account for individual differences. To record the intensity I can take my heart beat at the end of each session to see if I am reaching my training zone. The time or duration that the exercise is in progress. For aerobic type activities, the athlete should be training within his/her/my training zones for a minimum of 20-30 minutes. However it is important to remember that duration should not be considered in isolation since intensity of training often determines the duration of the training session.
As my fitness scores were low I am going to start my training sessions with a low time period so that it will be easier for me to increase the time period at each session so that it is beneficial to me. For muscular endurance I am using two types of training, weight training and circuit training, for weight training time is not relevant as I will be using repetitions, but for circuit training the time spent at teach station will increase in order to overload. The type or mode of training that is undertaken.
Because I am aiming to improve cardio-vascular fitness and muscular endurance I will choose training methods which are relevant to these. For cardio-vascular the type of training that I will use is continuous training, and for weight training I will use two methods: Circuit training and weight training. Other Safety Considerations In terms of good practice and for safety considerations nutrition should be considered before and after participating in a game of Gaelic football in order to ensure that the correct nutrients are received.
According to ‘Wesson Et Al’ Nutrition. Sport nutrition is of great importance. A well balanced diet is essential for optimum performance in both training and during competition. This is because the athletes are placing enormous demands on their bodies when competing at the highest levels. An adequate diet is needed to enable the body to function properly. There are five main groups of nutrients that should be included in an athlete’s diet.According to ‘Wesson Et Al.
There are two main types of carbohydrates- Simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are vital to the athlete as it is a primary source of energy and is particularly essential during high intensity exercise, it is also necessary for the nervous system to function properly and also determine fat metabolism in the body. The daily recommended carbohydrate intake is 50% but as athletes tend to be more active than other people it is advisable for them to add in an extra 10% giving them an intake of 60%. Carbohydrates are stored in the muscles and liver as glycogen so that it is a readily available source of energy. Some sources of carbohydrates include, cereals, fruit and vegetables.
Fat is also a major source of energy up to 70% of our energy is derived from fat during our resting state. In the body fat usually exists as triglycerides or fatty acids. When sufficient oxygen is available to the muscle cell, fatty acids constitute the fuel for energy production as the body tries to spare limited stores of glycogen for higher intensity bouts of exercise, this can delay aspects of fatigue. The body adapts to using up fat through training. Fat is not listed as a sole fuel source it is combined with glycogen. Glycogen stores are completely depleted and the body attempts to supply all the energy required for metabolising fat. If fat is eaten alone it can inhibit the ability of the muscle to use it as a fuel source. It is recommended that an athletes diet is low in fat, especially saturated fats, which will promote good health and adequate energy stores.
Protein Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acid. They are required for the growth and repair of body tissue, proteins aid the production of enzymes, hormones and haemoglobin. It is seen as a third source of energy. Protein should constitute 15% of total calorie intake, adequate protein should be consumed in the athletes diet and it is generally thought that sufficient protein can be gained from an athletes diet. Some sources of protein include: meat, fish, poultry, beans, pulses and dairy products.
Vitamins Vitamins are only required in small amounts in the body but are vital in the production of energy and metabolism. A well balanced diet can provide the adequate amounts of vitamins required in the diet. It is believed that vitamin supplementation can enhance energy production and may lead to an improvement in the athletic performance. Vitamins can be found in fruits, vegetables and wholegrain cereals.
Minerals. As like vitamins, minerals are only required in small amounts but are also vital as they are used for tissue functioning. Many of the minerals are dissolved by the body as ions and are called electrolytes, they maintain the permeability of the cell and also aid the transmission of nerve impulses and enable effective muscle contractions. During exercise many minerals can be lost through sweat and have to be quickly replaced.
Athletes Diet. Eating any foods before, during of after exercise can have direct effect on the performance. Any athletes undergoing strenuous exercise need a high-energy intake. As we can see it is stated by ‘Wesson Et Al’ research points out that athletes should consume 4-6 small meals a day instead of 2-3 larger ones. This is to ensure that muscle and liver glycogen stores are kept topped up during the day. Before a high competitive game athletes are recommended to consume a high glycogen meal 3-4 hours before the activity begins. After exercise it is very important that the body is refuelled within two hours of the previous exercise.
For my PEP I intend to have a something filling about three to four hours before training or a match so that I know that I am receiving nutrients to help build up my strength. I will keep my diet low in fats and try to receive my energy from starchy carbohydrates to ensure that that I can received the required nutrients. Suitability/purpose of exercises. Throughout this programme I intend to employ three training methods.
Continuous training.- For cardio-vascular work This type of training involves using large muscle groups at a steady or low intensity, over a long period of time. For example, Jogging or cycling. The intensity of such exercise should be at approximately 60-80% of the maximum heart rate, this is outlined in the Karnoven principle so that the body does not feel too much discomfort during exercise. As a result of continuous training I hope to be able to run long continuously throughout a gaelic match. For my training sessions I am going to carry out running on a treadmill, to improve my cardio-vascular fitness. By carrying out continuous training I hope to improve my cardiovascular fitness so that I can improve my performance throughout a match.